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2. Working in the Television Production Industry. Objectives. Explain how the responsibilities of each production staff position are dependent on the functions of other production staff positions. Identify the primary responsibilities of each production staff position.

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Working in the Television Production Industry


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    1. 2 Working in the Television Production Industry

    2. Objectives • Explain how the responsibilities of each production staff position are dependent on the functions of other production staff positions. • Identify the primary responsibilities of each production staff position. • Recall the activities in each step of a production workflow.

    3. Production Staff

    4. Production Staff (Cont.) • Staff • Behind the scenes • Creative, department heads • Crew • Equipment operators • Not seen on camera

    5. Production Staff (Cont.) • TalentorCast • Anyone seen by camera • Anyone whose voice is heard on program

    6. Executive Producer • Provides funding for program • Hires producer • Expensive programs may have multiple e.p.’s

    7. Producer(non-news) • Purchases materials and services • Hires production staff • Develops budget • Arranges travel, lodging, catering, logistics • Possesses extreme attention to detail • Carries ultimate responsibility for program’s success • Interacts with all staff

    8. Four Phases of Production • Pre-Production • Planning, scripting, everything before cameras roll • Production • Shooting • Post-Production • Editing, music, and effects addition • Distribution • Duplication and delivery to end user

    9. Producer (news) • Coordinates content and flow of newscast • Involved in story decision process • Develops order of stories for newscast • Decides on “break-ins” for special reports • Supervises reporters • Reports to news director

    10. News Director • Responsible for structure of newsroom • Responsible for personnel matters • Responsible for effectiveness of newsroom • Final authority on which stories air • In classroom emulation of real world, usually teacher gradually gives this authority to students when they are ready for the responsibility

    11. Director • In charge of creative aspects of program • Interacts with entire staff • Casts program per budgetary constraints • Has clear vision of finished program • Provides vision and direction to departments • Communicates vision to all personnel

    12. Production Manager • Handles business portion of production • Negotiates fees for goods, services, etc. • Assures that programs and scripts meet broadcast standards • Manages budget that producer prepares

    13. Production Assistant • Sometimes referred to as the Assistant Director • Entry-level position • Jack-of-all-trades • Able to fill variety of positions as needs arise • Extremely motivated and energetic

    14. Networking • Most common way of getting job in industry • Tell professional friends you are looking • They tell their friends, who tell their friends, etc. • Eventually, someone hears of opening • Word comes back to you through network • You apply for job

    15. Floor Manager • Eyes and ears of director in studio • Relays director’s commands to studio personnel • Wears headset connected to director • Provides nonverbal cues to talent • Only person other than director who can say “cut”

    16. Floor Manager Cues

    17. Floor Manager Cues (Cont.)

    18. Floor Manager Cues (Cont.)

    19. Floor Manager Cues (Cont.)

    20. Camera Operator • Runs piece of gear that captures video images • Frames pleasing shots • Follows director’s camera directions

    21. Photographer • Also known as photog or “shooter” • Goes into field with reporter in news • Operates field camera in news • Transports gear • Sets up gear • Tears down gear

    22. Photojournalist • Performs duties of photog and reporter • A “one-man band” • Very employable due to ability to fill two roles

    23. Reporter • Responsible for gathering information • Writes stories • Interviews people • Edits stories • Usually supplies audio narration of story • Backbone of news

    24. Assignment Editor • Schedules personnel to cover stories • Pairs reporters with photogs

    25. Anchor • Delivers news from news desk set in studio • Reads teleprompter • Provides intro and closing to stories, if needed • May sometimes provide commentary

    26. Video Engineer • Responsible for technical quality of video signal • Trained in electronics of video production • Ensures that images from different cameras match in quality and color

    27. Audio Engineer • Responsible for technical quality of audio signal • Responsible for maintaining and stabilizing overall audio levels on master recordings • Goal is for viewer to never adjust volume • Often is audio mixer operator • Often operates all other audio gear, such as recorders and players

    28. Lighting Director • Decides placement, color, intensity, and aiming of lighting instruments • Often employs gaffer as assistant to physically carry, hang, and manipulate instruments per LD’s direction

    29. Scriptwriter • Places entire production on paper • Often employs content specialistto provide expert input on subjects present in production

    30. Graphic Artist • Responsible for all artwork required • Computer graphics • Traditional works of art • Charts • Graphs

    31. VTR Operator • Responsible for recording program on videotape • This job only exists in facilities where video tape is used

    32. Video Operator • Responsible for recording program on digital media • DVD • Hard drive • Other technology • This job only exists in tapeless facilities

    33. Robo Operator • This job exists in facilities with robotic camera mounts on studio camera pedestals • Responsible for operating all studio cameras from one remote control console • Manipulates all camera movements with joystick and other controls Brian Franco

    34. Editor • Combines all scenes of production into correct order • Eliminates bad takes • Operates electronic device which is also called “editor”

    35. Makeup Artist • Applies cosmetics to face and body of talent • Responsible for enhancing talent’s appearance • Responsible for changing talent’s appearance, if necessary

    36. CG Operator • Responsible for creating titles for program • Responsible for any text that appears • Operates character generator (CG), computer that functions as word processor for television

    37. Grip • Responsible for moving things on or to set • Equipment • Scenery • Props • This job is called “stagehand” in theater

    38. Maintenance Engineer • Keeps all equipment operating at factory spec • Not repair person • “Tweaks” gear, keeping it at optimum level

    39. Production Staff

    40. Production Values • General aesthetics of program • Goal is to attain high production values

    41. Terms • When in production environment, always use professional terms • Never use consumer terms in production environment • Use of professional terms is perceived as indication of knowledge

    42. Program Proposal • First step in production includes: • Basic idea of production • Format • Intended audience • Budget considerations • Locations • Rough shooting plan

    43. Scripting • Outline script often follows proposal • Many different formats • Most common is two columns • Left column: video • Right column: audio

    44. Producing • Coordinate schedules • Acquire necessary resources • Monitor activities and progress of production team • Weigh budgetary considerations

    45. Directing • Shaping all creative aspects • Involved in pre-production • Involved in production • Involved in post-production

    46. Lighting • Must be sufficient light for tech requirements of equipment for acceptable picture • Must be designed to create desired mood, appearance, and setting • Must contribute to creating image with as much 3-D effect as possible

    47. Scenery, Set Dressing, and Props • Placement of these contributes to 3-D effect • Scenery stops distant view of camera

    48. Costumes and Makeup • Makeup is cosmetics applied to skin to change or enhance appearance • Enables performers to look like themselves or characters they play

    49. Graphics • Should be bold, not highly detailed • Should always be previewed on TV screen–not computer monitor