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Minerals. Feldspar Minerals. Feldspar Minerals: group of silicates; mineral of crust, cleavage at 90 with flat, rectangular, glassy surfaces 1. Albite ( Plagioclase): Plagioclase Feldspar: calcium to sodium rich; example is albite ; has striations (thin parallel grooves)

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feldspar minerals
Feldspar Minerals
  • Feldspar Minerals: group of silicates; mineral of crust, cleavage at 90 with flat, rectangular, glassy surfaces
  • 1. Albite ( Plagioclase): Plagioclase Feldspar: calcium to sodium rich; example is albite; has striations (thin parallel grooves)
  • 2. Amazonite (Microcline)  
  • 3. Orthoclase Group: Orthoclase Feldspar: Feldspar group; also known as potassium feldspar KAlSi3O8
  • Mica Group: silicate; perfect cleavage; in one direction it splits into sheets; examples are muscovite (colorless or silvery); biotite (black with magnesium and iron); lepidolite (lilac or rose colored)
  • Amphibole group: silicate; two directions of cleavage not at 90; narrow elongated crystals; example is hornblend ( dark contains magnesium and iron)
  • Pyroxene group: two directions of cleavage at 90; typically dark; example is augite( dark with magnesium and iron)
other minerals
Other Minerals
  • Clay mineral: Silicate; weathered feldspar; very fine grained; earthy luster; smooth; example is Kaolinite
  • Non-Silicate Minerals: 8% of earth’s crust; element, oxides, sulfides, etc.
  • Carbonates: non silicate; example is calcite (CaCO3) with limestone and marble
  • Halides & Sulfides: evaporate minerals
classes of silicates
Classes of Silicates
  • Sorosilicates
  • Cyclosilicates
  • Inosilicates
  • Phyllosicates
  • Tectosilicates
extra info
Extra Info
  • Quartz or quartz crystal, a nearly pure silicon dioxide specimen occurs in most igneous and practically all metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.
  • Lepidolite, muscovite, and biotite exhibit cleavage with weak bonds in only one direction.
  • Halite is classified as an evaporite due to its having been formed by the evaporation of saline water within partially enclosed basins.
  • Almandine garnet is able to overpower and displace surrounding solid material during its formation so that it almost always develops its characteristic crystal faces.
  • Bornite or chalcopyrite, often associated with the minerals sphalerite and galena, is the main source of copper.
extra info1
Extra Info
  • Sphalerite is a major source of zinc.
  • Hematite’s streak is always reddish brown in color in spite of its actual color being brown, red or silver.
  • Gold has a specific gravity of 19.3.
  • Feldspar is the most common mineral found in Earth’s crust.
  • Opal is not a crystalline solid and is, instead, classified as a mineraloid.
extra info2
Extra Info
  • Galena is the primary source of lead.
  • Staurolite consists of a basic silicate of iron and aluminum in prismatic orthorhom- bic crystals often twinned so as to resemble a cross.
  • Fluorite, represented by its more rare octahedral crystal form at this station, occurs naturally in nearly every color of the spectrum.
  • Amazonite is a form of microcline named for a South American rainforest where it is nowhere to be found.
  • Ulexite’s optical effect is created by individual fibers acting as fiber-optic cables, transmitting light from one surface to the other.
extra info3
Extra Info
  • Sodalite has a pleasant blue color, usually includes white veins or streaking, and is commonly used as a carving stone.
  • Rhodonite, a pink and red specimen, often has black manganese oxide veins running through it, giving it a distinct appearance of pink with black crisscrossing lines.
  • Dolomite’s crystal habits include saddle shaped rhombohedral twins and simple rhombs, some with slightly curved faces.
  • Beryl has several varieties, including the emerald specimen at this station.

What are the two most abundant elements by mass found in Earth's crust?

  • aluminum and iron

2. sodium and chlorine

3. calcium and carbon

4. oxygen and silicon


Which mineral is white or colorless, has a hardness of 2.5, and splits with cubic cleavage?


2. halite


4. Mica

  • Used for mining iron ore
  • Has a reddish brown streak because of the iron and oxygen present, making rust
  • Classified as oxide
  • Has higher specific gravity than corundum
  • Streak test would be a good test to identify; by crushing will notice blood red powder
  • Silver or gray in appearance
  • When magnetite reacts with oxygen, hematite will form
  • Rich source of iron
  • Hardeness: 5-6
  • Used for mining iron ore
  • Is classified as a hydroxide
  • Also called brown iron ore or brown hematite
  • Has another form, Asbestos, can be used as a fire retardant
  • Native Element/Mineral
  • Same hardness as bornite
  • Is very conductive
  • Is used to make the alloy, Brass
  • Same hardness as copper
  • Is a copper, iron sulfide
  • Is an ore of copper
  • Used in jewelry
  • Is the 2nd hardest natural mineral known to man
  • Diamond is four times harder
  • Used for abrasive and as a gemstone
  • Classified as oxide
  • Mineral of rubies and sapphires
  • Hexagonal crystal system
  • Hematite family
  • Chemical formula: Al2O3
  • Hardness: 9
  • Carbonate mineral
  • Is unstable at normal temperatures at Earth’s surface
  • Has magnesium in its composition
  • Same chemical formula as calcite and therefore is polymorph of calcite
  • CaCO3
  • Different crystalline structre than calcite; but when heated will form calcite
  • Softer than feldspar
  • Orthorhombic
  • Specific Gravity 2.94
  • Carbonate mineral
  • Transparent variety is called Iceland spar
  • Primary component of cave formation
  • Same chemical formula as aragonite and therefore is polymorph of aragonite
  • Exhibits effervesce
  • Calcite is made by plankton and falls to bottom of sea when plankton die
  • Copper carbonate
  • About same hardness as malachite
  • Classified as carbonate and thus related to calcite and dolomite
  • Classified as copper ores
  • Used as pigments, minor ores of copper, and ornamental
  • Does not effervesce in hydrochloric acid
  • Copper carbonate
  • Can replace azurite over time
  • About same hardness as azurite
  • More common than azurite
  • classified as carbonate and thus related to calcite and dolomite
  • Classified as copper ores
  • Used as pigments, minor ores of copper, and ornamental
  • Will effervesce in diluted hydrochloric acid
  • Crystal System: Monoclinic
  • Is primarily composed of carbon
  • Can conduct electricity on one plane of tetrahedrally bonded carbon atoms
  • Main function is lubricant
  • Also used in pencils, control rods of nuclear reactors, batteries
  • Found in China, Brazil, Canada, Madagascar, Sri Lanka
  • Pure Deposits in Borrowdale, England
  • Hexagonal crystal system
  • Native Element
  • The coating on the spoon
  • Reacts with sulfur and tarnishes
  • Best conductor of electricity
  • Crystal System: Cubic
  • Easily tarnished in air and is therefore rarely found in its pure form
  • Is a zinc, iron sulfide
  • Hardness is a little harder than copper
  • Major ore of zinc
  • Is commonly found in sedimentary environments in evaporate deposits, volcanic activity
  • When mixed with sulfur and water produces hydrogen sulfide gas
  • Native Element
  • When mixed with sphalerite and water produces hydrogen sulfide gas
  • Causes acid rain
  • Used in pesticides, gunpowder, and fungicides
  • Crstal System: Orthorhombic
  • Could be called a Potassium-Aluminum-Silicate
  • Also has a massive form and is often associated with tourmaline
  • Could be called a Potassium-Aluminum-Silicate
  • Elastic
  • Could be called a Potassium-Aluminum-Silicate
  • Elastic
  • CaMg(CO3)2
  • rhombohedral cleavage
  • Also known as dolomite rock
  • Constituent of dolostone
  • Form alternative of limestone with addition of magnesium
  • Is a double carbonate and therefore does not dissolve as rapidly or effervesce as rapidly as calcite
  • Classified with evaporites, CaSO4∙2H2O
  • Also known as rock gypsum
  • Used for plaster
  • Generally soft
  • Varieties include selenite (clear with rhombohedral cleavage), alabaster (fine grain and massive), satin spar (fibrous)
alabaster gypsum
Alabaster Gypsum
  • Could be used to make Plaster of Paris
  • Has the mineral Calcium
  • It could be used as a fertilizer.
  • Classified as Sorosilicate mineral
  • Magnesium Iron Sillicate mineral
  • Crystal System: Orthorhombic
  • It could be used as an abrasive because of its hardness
  • It is found in many iron-nickel meteorites
  • Is a neosilicate
  • Often glassy
  • Exhibits conchoidal fractures
  • Mg and Fe rich
  • Most abundant in earth’s mantle
  • Silicate mineral
  • Second most abundant of crust
  • Constituent in sandstone and quartzite
  • Has conchoidal fracture
  • Major use is for jewelry, mineral
  • A type of quartz
  • Used for medications, paper filler; make pottery
  • Is white and powdery
  • Softer than feldspar
  • It is part of your bone structure and makes up the teeth of all vertebrates
  • Used as plant fertilizers to alter taste
  • Main source of phosphate in world
  • Crystal System: hexagonal
  • Made of hydrous magnesium silicate
  • Used in lubricanys, baby powder,plastics, and rubber, soapstone ornaments
  • Crystal System: monoclinic
  • Belongs to group of minerals containing halogens
  • Harder than halite, but appearance is same
  • Used in iron smelting, added to water to prevent kidney disease, lenses, nonstick coatings
  • Has same isometric crystal system as halite
  • Has fluorescent properties when under UV lights
  • Made of Calcium Fluoride
  • Crystal System: cubic
  • Belongs to a group of minerals containing halogens
  • Would most likely be found where seas or lakes have dried up
  • Same isometric crystal system as fluorite
  • Is necessary for the human body
  • NaCl evaporate
  • Also called rock salt
  • Has cubic cleavage
  • Used to melt ice
  • Can be taken out of sea water or mined
  • Found in Germany, England, Poland and US
  • Has a structure identical to halite
  • An ore of lead
  • Classified as a sulfide
  • Specific gravity is about two times heavier than magnetite
  • Specific gravity is about 7.5 times heavier than that amount of water
  • Is a natural semiconductor and is used in televisions, GPS systems and telephones
  • First used as kohl until found to be poisonous
  • Has structure analogous to galena
  • Can be called Fools gold or Sulfide mineral
  • Golden or black streak
  • Golden yellow in color
  • Grows in shiny cubes
  • Found in Japan, Spain, US
  • Used in jewelry
  • Unlike pyrite, contains copper, and is a copper iron sulfide
  • Leading source of copper because it is found in large quntities and distributed widely
  • Also called fools gold or sulfide
  • Found in igneous rocks
  • Has two forms of iron causing the electrons to transfer between the different ions
  • Specific gravity is about the average for metallic minerals
  • Classifiead as an iron oxide
  • Can be made into magnets
  • Black or metallic
  • Found South Africa, US, Sweden on black sand beaches
  • Black, brown, green, or violet sometimes found colorless and shiny
  • Breaks into smooth thin sheets
  • Used in paints
  • Found in Brazil, India, US, Madagascar
  • Crystal System: monoclinic
  • Comes from Latin word meanining shine
  • Flakes sparkle in schist
  • Very resistant to heat and very flat
  • Silicate