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Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

Teacher Education



Nomer Dawn S. Cayas

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

Teacher Education

-refers to the policies and procedures designed to equip prospective teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school and wider community.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

Although ideally it should be conceived of, and organised as, a seamless continuum, teacher education is often divided into these stages:

  • initial teacher training / education (a pre-service course before entering the classroom as a fully responsible teacher);

  • induction (the process of providing training and support during the first few years of teaching or the first year in a particular school);

  • teacher development or continuing professional development (CPD) (an in-service process for practicing teachers).

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

Initial Teacher Education


In many countries Initial Teacher Education (also known as preservice teacher training) takes place largely or exclusively in institutions of Higher Education. It may be organized according to two basic models.

  • Consecutive Model

- a teacher first obtains a qualification in one or more subjects (often an undergraduate Bachelor's degree), and then studies for a further period to gain an additional qualification in teaching (this may take the form of a post-baccalaureate credential or Master's degree).

  • Concurrent' model

a student simultaneously studies both one or more academic subjects, and the ways of teaching that subject, leading to a combined Bachelor's degree and teaching credential to qualify as a teacher of that subject.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

Initial Teacher Education


The question of what knowledge, attitudes, behaviours and skills teachers should possess is the subject of much debate in many cultures. This is understandable, as teachers are entrusted with the transmission to learners of society's beliefs, attitudes and deontology, as well as of information, advice and wisdom, and with facilitating learners' acquisition of the key knowledge, attitudes and behaviours that they will need to be active in society and the economy.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

Initial Teacher Education


Generally, Teacher Education curricula can be broken down into four major areas:

  • foundational knowledge in education-related aspects of philosophy of education, history of education, educational psychology, and sociology of education.

  • skills in assessing student learning, supporting English Language learners, using technology to improve teaching and learning, and supporting students with special needs.

  • content-area and methods knowledge and skills—often also including ways of teaching and assessing a specific subject, in which case this area may overlap with the first ("foundational") area.

  • practice at classroom teaching or at some other form of educational practice—usually supervised and supported in some way, though not always.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

Initial Teacher Education

Supervised Field Experiences

Field Observations

include observation and limited participation within a classroom under the supervision of the classroom teacher

Student Teaching

includes a number of weeks teaching in an assigned classroom under the supervision of the classroom teacher and a supervisor

(e.g. from the university)


teaching candidate is supervised within his or her own classroom

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

Induction of Beginning Teachers

A number of countries and states have put in place comprehensive systems of support to help beginning teachers during their first years in the profession. Elements of such a programme can include:

  • mentoring

the allocation to each beginning teacher of an experienced teacher, specifically trained as a mentor; the mentor may provide emotional and professional support and guidance; in many U.S. states, induction is limited to the provision of a mentor, but research suggests that, in itself, it is not enough.

  • a peer network

for mutual support but also for peer learning.

  • input from educational experts (e.g. to help the beginning teacher relate what she learned in college with classroom reality)

  • support for the process of self-reflection that all teachers engage in (e.g. through the keeping of a journal).

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

Continuous Professional Development

A growing research base suggests that to be most effective, CPD activities should:

  • be spread over time

  • be collaborative

  • use active learning

  • be delivered to groups of teachers

  • include periods of practice, coaching, and follow-up

  • promote reflective practice

  • encourage experimentation, and

  • respond to teachers' needs.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

Quality Assurance

Quality in educationrelates to the quality of the work undertaken by a teacher, which has significant effects upon his or her pupils or students. Further, those who pay teachers' salaries, whether through taxes or through school fees, wish to be assured that they are receiving value for money. Ways to measure the quality of work of individual teachers, of schools, or of education systems as a whole, are therefore often sought.

In most countries, teacher salary is not related to the perceived quality of his or her work. Some, however, have systems to identify the 'best-performing' teachers, and increase their remuneration accordingly. Elsewhere, assessments of teacher performance may be undertaken with a view to identifying teachers' needs for additional training or development, or, in extreme cases, to identify those teachers that should be required to leave the profession. In some countries, teachers are required to re-apply periodically for their license to teach, and in so doing, to prove that they still have the requisite skills.

Feedback on the performance of teachers is integral to many state and private education procedures, but takes many different forms. The 'no fault' approach is believed by some to be satisfactory, as weaknesses are carefully identified, assessed and then addressed through the provision of in house or school based training. These can, however, be seen as benefiting the institution and not necessarily fully meeting the CPD needs of the individual as they lack educational gravitas.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

Teacher Education Policy

The process by which teachers are educated is the subject of political discussion in many countries, reflecting both the value attached by societies and cultures to the preparation of young people for life, and the fact that education systems consume significant financial resources (of which teacher salaries is often the largest single element).

However, the degree of political control over Teacher Education varies. Where TE is entirely in the hands of universities, the state may have no direct control whatever over what or how new teachers are taught; this can lead to anomalies, such as teachers being taught using teaching methods that would be deemed inappropriate if they used the same methods in schools, or teachers being taught by persons with little or no hands-on experience of teaching in real classrooms.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

Teacher Education Policy

In other systems, TE may be the subject of detailed prescription (e.g. the state may specify the skills that all teachers must possess, or it may specify the content of TE courses).

In many states, the process of acquiring the relevant knowledge and skills to be a teacher (qualification) is separate from the process of acquiring the official permission to teach in public schools (registration or licensing).

Policy cooperation in the European Union has led to a broad description of the kinds of attributes that teachers in EU Member States should possess: the [Common European Principle for Teacher Competences and Qualifications]

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

Teacher Education

UNESCO, United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas


The main challenge faced by the teaching profession today is both one of numbers and quality. With an estimated 1.7 million new teachers required to reach universal primary education by 2015, the recruiting of new teachers must go hand in hand with improving the quality of teaching and learning, Achieving quality education for all, in line with Goal 6 of the Dakar Framework for Action, calls for more and better trained teachers, as pedagogical processes lie at the heart of quality education.  Equally, schools must be supported in attracting qualified teachers. The challenge of quantity must be met head-on, while ensuring quality and equity.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

UNESCO works to address these challenges and aims to mobilize and assist Member States in the design and implementation of viable national policies for teacher initial and continuous training, recruitment, retention, status and working conditions.

The Organization's activities are guided by the UNESCO/ILO Recommendations on the Status of Teachers, and framed by a new teacher strategy. A new initiative, Quality teachers for EFA , is replacing the Teacher Training Initiative for Sub-Saharan Africa (TTISSA), and focuses on developing institutional capacity for training and developing a high quality teaching force in countries most hampered by the lack of teachers.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

Initial Teacher Training

UNESCO supports the review and development of training materials in the area of teacher training and management. It also works to improve the management of teachers through the enhancement of national and comparative teacher data with the UNESCO Institute of Statistics and through collaboration with the UNESCO Chairs and networks and the Global Monitoring Report (GMR).

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

Policies and Quality Assurance

UNESCO supports the development of comprehensive teacher policies through South-South sharing, research and capacity development forums. The organization is also working to support Member States to address issues of quality assurance in teacher education.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

Status and Working Conditions

UNESCO works to raise the status of teachers, specifically through the promotion and dissemination of the two UNESCO/ILO normative instruments concerning the status of teaching personnel (1966 and 1997).

The Joint ILO/UNESCO Committee of Experts on the Application of the Recommendation concerning the Status of Teachers (CEART) monitors the implementation of these Recommendations.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

Innovation Teacher Education - UNESCO

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas


JawaharNavodayaVidyalaya known as JNV are Indian schools for talented children and form a part of the system of gifted education. Its significance lies in the selection of talented rural children as the target group and the attempt to provide them with quality education comparable to the best in a residential school system, without regard to their family's socio-economic condition.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas


They are located all over the country, except Tamil Nadu. There are approximately 593 JNVs across India as of 2010. The admission process includes an All India Entrance Exam, held at district level (There is one school per district).

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

About The NavodayaVidyalayaSamiti

The NavodayaVidyalaya System is a unique experiment unparalleled in the annals of school education in India and elsewhere. Its significance lies in the selection of talented rural children as the target group and the attempt to provide them with quality education comparable to the best in a residential school system.

Such children are found in all sections of society, and in all areas including the most backward. But, so far, good quality education has been available only to well-to-do sections of society, and the poor have been left out.

It was felt that children with special talent or aptitude should be provided opportunities to proceed at a faster pace, by making good quality education available to them, irrespective of their capacity to pay for it.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

About The NavodayaVidyalayaSamiti

  • These talented children otherwise would have been deprived of quality modern education traditionally available only in the urban areas. Such education would enable students from rural areas to compete with their urban counterparts on an equal footing. The National Policy on Education-1986 envisaged the setting up of residential schools, to be called JawaharNavodayaVidyalayas that would bring out the best of rural talent.

  • The opening of a NavodayaVidyalaya is based on the proposal received from the concerned State/UT alongwith the following :

    • 30 acres of suitable land free of cost in relaxation to the extent of at least 10 acres on case to case basis.

    • Sufficient space in the building and other infrastructure free of rent for at least three to four years which could accommodate 240 students and staff for running the Vidyalaya till the Samiti constructs its new building at the permanent site.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas


The chain of JawaharNavodayaVidyalaya is managed by NavodayaVidyalayaSamiti which is an autonomous organization of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Secondary Education and Higher Education.

The Samiti functions through an Executive Committee under the Chairmanship of the Union Minister of Human Resource Development. Union Minister of State for Education is the Vice- Chairman of the Samiti. The Executive Committee is assisted by Finance Committee ,and Academic Advisory Committee in its functions.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas


The Samiti has eight Regional Offices for administration of Vidyalayas under their respective regions. These offices are located at places in different States. For each Vidyalaya, there is a Vidyalaya Advisory Committee and a Vidyalaya Management Committee for the general supervision of the Vidyalaya.

District Magistrate of the concerned district is the Chairman of the Vidyalaya level Committees with local educationists, public representatives and officials from the District as members.

NVS headquartered is presently located at Indira Gandhi Stadium, I.P.Estate, New Delhi-110 002.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas


  • To serve the objectives of excellence coupled with equity and social justice.

  • To promote national integration by providing opportunities to talented children, largely rural, from different part of the country, to live and learn together and develop their full potential.

  • To provide good quality modern education, including a strong component of culture, inculcation of values, awareness of the environment, adventure activities and physical education.

  • To ensure that all students of NavodayaVidyalayas attain a reasonable level of competence in three language as envisaged in the Three-language formula (Hindi, English and one of the local languages); and

  • To serve, in each district, as focal point for improvement in quality of school education through sharing of experiences and facilities.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas


There is a simple entrance test organized by JawaharNavodayaVidyalayaSamiti every year in the month of February. This test contains reasoning, math and Hindi.

The entrance form is available on every 'NavodayaVidyalaya' free of cost mostly in month of October. Before filling the form the student must be studying in 5th standard in a school affiliated by central or state government.

There is also a lateral exam for students who want to come in JNVs from 9th, the students must be studying in 8th to give the entrance exam which is similar to that of 6th exam but with syllabus of 8th.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas

Scouting, guiding and NCC (National Cadet Corps)

NavodayaVidyalayaSamiti is recognised as a state for scouting and guiding activities by the Bharat Scouts and Guides.

Navodayastudents regularly and actively participate in programmes of BSG. NCC is being introduced in JNVs in a phased manner. Samitihad a total cadet strength of 9420 during 2003-2004. As part of NCC training, students of the JNVs attended several camps and excelled themselves.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas


One of the important features of the NavodayaVidyalaya Scheme is a scheme of exchange of students from one vidyalaya in a particular linguistic region to another in a different linguistic region to promote understanding of the diversity and plurality of India's culture and its people.

The aim of the migration in JawaharNavodayaVidyalayas is focused on national integration. According to the scheme, selected 30% of 9th class students are exchanged between JNVs of non-Hindi speaking region and Hindi speaking region, for one year.

Teacher education and navodaya vidlayas