PART IV: SOCIAL CONTEXT
INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL CONTEXTExamples of contextMacro- and micro-contextDynamics between context and other unitsWhat is ‘environment’?Examples of macro-contextThree types of micro-context
PERSONALITY UNITS AND COURSE STRUCTURE Stable Variable Inner, private, subjective 2. Cognition & Self e.g. self-concept, beliefs, goals Major theorists: Rogers, Mischel 1. Motivation e.g. motives, defenses, psychic structure Major theorists: Freud, McClelland Outer, public, objective 3. Traits & Temperament e.g. extraversion Major theorists: Jung, Eysenck, Gray 4. Social Context e.g., culture, ethnicity, power, gender Major theorists: Mischel, Triandis
Virginia Woolf on how she was influenced by her mother: Until I was in the forties . . . The presence of my mother obsessed me. I could hear her voice, see her, imagine what she would do or say as I went about my day’s doings. She was one of the invisible presences who after all play so important a part in every life. . . . Consider what immense forces society brings to play upon each of us, how that society changes from decade to decade; and also from class to class; well, if we cannot analyze these invisible presences, we know very little of [any person about whom we write].
Two Types of Contexts Microcontexts: Immediate features of the present situation; past and present learning and reinforcement history. (E.g. responses and habits) Little Albert and Bobo doll experiments. Macrocontexts: Large-scale, complex, and enduring patterns of environments. (E.g. gender, social class, religion, race, processes of social identity and influence) Internment of Japanese Americans during WWII and gender
MICRO-CONTEXT MACRO-CONTEXT (e.g., gender, SES, power, race, culture) MICRO-CONTEXT immediate features of the environment (e.g., physical and subjective features of situation, emotional states, group pressure, etc.)
Environment Shapes Personality,Personality Shapes Environment Person Self & Cognition Motives Environment Traits Author: O. Schultheiss
Physical: Climate, geographic region, food supply, etc. Micro & Macro Social: Family, friends, partner, teachers, etc. Micro Culture: TV, books, music, magazines, language, etc. Macro History: Wars, economic changes, inventions, etc. Macro What Exactly is “The Environment”? Environment Author: O. Schultheiss
Internment of Japanese Americans: Loss of dignity, possessions, role of “outsider”, “enemy” Some consequences: Lowered self-esteem, sense of shame; repression, denial (Effects on motives, traits unknown) Next generation: Disidentification with American culture, increased power motivation Illustrations of the Macrocontext:1. Internment of Japanese Americans Social context: War against Japan, racism & prejudice Author: O. Schultheiss
Internment of Jews in concentration camps: Loss of dignity, possessions; certain death Some consequences: Helplessness, traumatization, depression, guilt (survivors guilt), but also reactance Next generation: Increased need for power, enhanced sense of Jewish identity Illustrations of the Macro context:2. Children of Holocaust Survivors Social context: anti-Semitism, Hitler Author: O. Schultheiss
Classical/ • Pavlovian • conditioning: • Little Albert • Transference • Instrumental/ • Operant • conditioning: • Reward & punishment • Observational • learning: • “Bobo doll” study • Violent crime increase in 60s The Microcontext: Some Examples of Immediate, Direct Influences Microcontext Author: O. Schultheiss
Forms of Operant Conditioning: • Positive Reinforcement: give a reward to continue desired behavior • Negative Reinforcement: take away an unpleasant stimulus to encourage a desired behavior. • Note: Both positive and negative reinforcement strengthen behavior. • c. Punishment (Time-Out & Extinction): giving an unpleasant consequences to decrease an undesired behavior.
Microcontext Personality How Macrocontexts and Microcontexts Interlock: Macrocontext