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Chapter 3. Chemical Compounds. Types of Compounds. Inorganic Compounds – do not contain carbon Organic Compounds – contain carbon. Inorganic Compounds. Ionic compound combination of metals and nonmetals made up of positive and negative ions joined together by electrostatic

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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Chemical Compounds


Types of compounds
Types of Compounds

  • Inorganic Compounds – do not contain carbon

  • Organic Compounds – contain carbon

HFinks '07


Inorganic compounds
Inorganic Compounds

  • Ionic compound

    combination of metals and nonmetals

    made up of positive and negative ions

    joined together by electrostatic

    forces

HFinks '07


Chapter 3
Ions

  • Ions are atoms that have either lost or gained electrons.

  • Electrons are lost from the outermost energy level (discussed later in textbook)

  • Ions that have more protons than electrons are positively charged

  • Ions that have more electrons than protons are negatively charged

HFinks '07


Monatomic ions
Monatomic Ions

  • Formed from a single atom

  • Example:

    • Sodium Na+

    • Sulfur s6+ or S2-

HFinks '07


Monatomic ions1
Monatomic ions

  • Ions formed from a single atom

  • Atom = Na Ion = Na+

  • Atom = O Ion = O2-

HFinks '07


Using your periodic table
Using your periodic table

  • The number of the main group elements will be used to determine the oxidation states.

  • Groups IA, IIA, IIIA = +, 2+, 3+

  • Group VA = 5+, 3-

  • Group VIA = 6+, 2-

  • Group VIIA = 7+, -

HFinks '07


Alkali metals group ia
Alkali Metals (Group IA)

  • The oxidation number of alkali metals in a compound is always 1+.

    Never write the number 1 for anything in chemistry. It is understood.

HFinks '07


Alkaline earth metals group iia
Alkaline Earth Metals (Group IIA)

  • The oxidation number of alkaline earth metals in a compound is always 2+.

HFinks '07


Nitrogen family group va
Nitrogen Family (Group VA)

  • Nitrides, phosphides, and arsenides are always 3- in binary salts.

    N3- P3- As3-

HFinks '07


Oxygen family group via
Oxygen Family (Group VIA)

  • The oxidation number of oxygen is almost always 2- in a compound. There are exceptions.

    a) Peroxides, O22- (each oxygen is 1-)

    [Formed with elements in Groups IA and IIA]

    b) Superoxides, O2- (each oxygen is ½-)

    K, Rb and Ce are the only elements that form

    Superoxides.

  • Sulfide, selenide, telluride, and polonide are always 2- in binary salts. (S2-, Se2-, Te2-, Po2-)

HFinks '07


The halogens group viia
The Halogens (Group VIIA)

  • In metallic halides the halogen (F, Cl, Br, I, At) always has an oxidation number equal to 1-.

  • Remember: Never write the number 1.

HFinks '07




Balancing using oxidation number
Balancing Using Oxidation Number

  • The oxidation number of any element in its free state (uncombined with other elements) is 0.

HFinks '07


Ionic compounds
Ionic Compounds

  • Ionic compounds consists of a metallic ion and a non-metallic ion.

  • Positive ion is the cation

  • Negative ion is the anion.

HFinks '07


Chemical formula indicates
Chemical Formula indicates

  • The elements present

  • The relative number of atoms of each element in the compound

HFinks '07


Binary compounds
Binary Compounds

  • Binary compounds are made of two different element.

    -Combined chemically

    -Definite proportion by mass

HFinks '07


Balancing binary compounds
Balancing Binary Compounds

  • Step I: Write the symbols for each ion

  • Example: Na Cl

  • Step II: Assign an oxidation number

    • Na+ Cl- Al3+ S2-

  • Step III: Balance the compound. The sum of

    the oxidation numbers must be

    zero. (Hint: Crisscross the charges. Don’t

    include the signs.)

    NaCl Al2S3

  • HFinks '07


    Balancing binary compounds1
    Balancing Binary Compounds

    • What should you do if the charges are the same?

    • Nothing. The formula is balanced. The sum of the charges is “0”.

    • Example: Ba 2+ O2- = BaO

    HFinks '07


    Balancing binary formulas
    Balancing Binary Formulas

    • Silver & chlorine

    • Zinc & oxygen

    • Calcium & bromine

    • Strontium & fluorine

    • Barium & chlorine

    • Calcium & chlorine

    HFinks '07


    Balancing binary formulas1
    Balancing Binary Formulas

    • Silver & chlorine AgCl

    • Zinc & oxygen ZnO

    • Calcium & bromine CaBr2

    • Strontium & fluorine SrF2

    • Barium & chlorine BaCl2

    • Calcium & chlorine CaCl2

    HFinks '07


    Naming binary compounds
    Naming Binary Compounds

    1. Write a balanced formula

    2. Write the name of the 1st ion with no

    changes.

    3. Change the ending on the 2nd ion to –ide.

    HFinks '07


    Naming binary compounds1
    Naming Binary Compounds

    Example

    NaCl = sodium chloride

    HFinks '07


    Naming binary compounds2
    Naming Binary Compounds

    • Silver & chlorine

    • Zinc & oxygen

    • Calcium & bromine

    • Strontium & fluorine

    • Barium & chlorine

    • Calcium & chlorine

    HFinks '07


    Naming binary compounds3
    Naming Binary Compounds

    • Silver & chlorine silver chloride

    • Zinc & oxygen zinc oxide

    • Calcium & bromine calcium bromide

    • Strontium & fluorine strontium fluoride

    • Barium & chlorine barium chloride

    • Calcium & chlorine calcium chloride

    HFinks '07


    Transitional ions and charges
    Transitional Ions and Charges

    • Fe2+ Iron (II) Ni 2+ Au+

    • Fe3+ Iron (III) Ni 3+ Au 3+

    • Sn2+ Tin (II) Zn 2+ Ag+1

    • Sn4+ Tin (IV)

    • Cu+1 Copper (I) Pb 2+ Mn+2, +3, +4,+6,+7

    • Cu+2 Copper (II) Pb 4+

    • Co +2

    • Co +3

    HFinks '07


    Naming transitional binary compounds
    Naming Transitional Binary Compounds

    • Fe2+ Iron (II) FeCl2 = iron (II) chloride

    • Fe3+ Iron (III)

    • Sn2+ Tin (II) SnCl2 = tin (II) chloride

    • Sn4+ Tin (IV)

    • Cu+1 Copper (I) CuCl = copper (I) chloride

    • Cu+2 Copper (II)

    HFinks '07


    Polyatomic ions
    Polyatomic Ions

    Polyatomic ions consist of two or more ions that act as one in a chemical reaction.

    Examples:

    NO3- nitrate PO43- phosphate

    SO42- sulfate NO2- nitrite

    SO32- sulfite OH- hydroxide

    ClO3- chlorate MnO4- permanganate

    C2H3O2- acetate NH4+ ammonium

    HFinks '07


    Ternary compounds
    Ternary Compounds

    • Ternary compounds are made up of three ions. Two of the ions are joined together and act as one. (polyatomic ion)

    • Example: NaNO3

      Na = sodium N = nitrogen O = oxygen

      N & O make up the nitrate ion, NO3-

    HFinks '07


    Naming ternary compounds
    Naming Ternary Compounds

    1. Write a balanced formula

    2. Write the name of the 1st ion. No changes to

    name.

    3. Write the name of the polyatomic ion.

    NaNO3 = sodium nitrate

    HFinks '07


    Formula and name of ternary compounds
    Formula and Name of Ternary Compounds

    • MgCO3 magnesium carbonate

    • Pb(NO3)2 lead nitrate

    • Ca(OH)2 calcium hydroxide

    • Ba(NO3)2 barium nitrate

    • Fe2(SO4)3 iron (III) sulfate

    • LiC2H3O2 lithium acetate

    • KClO3 potassium chlorate

    • (NH4)2SO4 ammonium sulfate

    HFinks '07


    Organic compounds
    Organic Compounds

    • Molecular compound

      • Made up of a small number of different

        non-metal atoms

      • Held together by forces known as

        covalent bonds

        The chemical formula gives you the number of atoms of each element contained in a single molecule of the compound

    HFinks '07


    Organic compounds prefixes
    Organic CompoundsPrefixes

    Number Prefix

    1 mono-

    2 di-/bi

    3 tri-

    4 tetra-

    5 penta-

    6 hexa-

    7 hepta-

    8 octa-

    9 nona-

    10 deca-

    HFinks '07


    Organic compounds1
    Organic Compounds

    • Carbon dioxide CO2

    • Nitrogen trioxide NO3

    • Dinitrogen trioxide N2O3

    HFinks '07


    Nomenclature review wkst
    Nomenclature Review Wkst.

    • 1. calcium chloride 1. NaCl

    • 2. magnesium oxide 2. MgCl2

    • 3. iron (III) hydroxide 3. BaF2

    • 4. potassium sulfate 4. KNO3

    • 5. cesium nitrate 5. Al2S3

    HFinks '07


    Nomenclature review
    Nomenclature Review

    • 6. rubidium selenide 6. Li2O

    • 7. strontium phosphate 7. SrSO4

    • 8. potassium oxide 8. CuCl2

    • 9. copper (I) oxide 9. (NH4)3PO4

    • 10. ammonium sulfafte 10. BeBr2

    HFinks '07


    Nomenclature review1
    Nomenclature Review

    • 11. sodium sulfide 11. H2SO4

    • 12. rubidium sulfate 12. Mg3(PO4)2

    • 13. calcium hydroxide 13. Na3PO4

    • 14. sodium iodide 14. (NH4)2O

    • 15. potassium hydroxide 15. AuCl3

    HFinks '07


    Nomenclature review2
    Nomenclature Review

    • 16. lead (II) sulfide 16. Na2CO3

    • 17. sodium carbonate 17. SiO2

    • 18. iron (III) chloride 18. PbS

    • 19. phosphoric acid 19. N2O3

    • 20. barium sulfate 20. HNO3

    • 21. silver nitrate 21. CaBr2

    HFinks '07


    Naming ionic compounds
    Naming Ionic Compounds

    • 1. sodium carbonate 129.0 g/mol

    • 2. sodium hydroxide 40.00 g/mol

    • 3. magnesium bromide 184.1 g/mol

    • 4. potassium chloride 74.6 g/mol

    • 5. iron (II) chloride 126.8 g/mol

    HFinks '07


    Naming ionic compounds1
    Naming Ionic Compounds

    • 6. iron (III) chloride 162.3 g/mol

    • 7. zinc hydroxide 99.4 g/mol

    • 8. beryllium sulfate 114.1 g/mol

    • 9. chromium (II) fluoride 90.0 g/mol

    • 10. aluminum sulfide 150 g/mol

    HFinks '07


    Naming ionic compounds2
    Naming Ionic Compounds

    • 11. lead (II) oxide 223.2 g/mol

    • 12. lithium phosphate 115.7 g/mol

    • 13. titanium (IV) iodide 556.3 g/mol

    • 14. cobalt (II) nitride 204.7 g/mol

    • 15. magnesium phosphide 134.9 g/mol

    HFinks '07


    Naming ionic compounds3
    Naming Ionic Compounds

    • 16. gallium nitrite 207.7 g/mol

    • 17. silver sulfite 296 g/mol

    • 18. ammonium hydroxide 35.0 g/mol

    • 19. aluminum cyanide 105.0 g/mol

    • 20. beryllium acetate 127.0 g/mol

    HFinks '07


    Polyatomic ions1
    Polyatomic Ions

    • Don’t separate the elements in the ion. Keep them together.

    • Don’t: N + O3

    • But NO3-

    HFinks '07


    Determining the charge on a polyatomic ion
    Determining the Charge on a Polyatomic Ion

    • (NO3)- (N5+ O36-)-

      (SO4)2-(S6+ O48-)2-

    HFinks '07


    Determine the oxidation number of the ions in the polyatomic ions below
    Determine the oxidation number of the ions in the polyatomic ions below

    • Phosphate

    • Chlorate

    • Sulfite

    • Permanganate

    • Nitrite

    • Hyroxide

    HFinks '07


    Oxidation states of elements in polyatomic ions
    Oxidation States of Elements in Polyatomic Ions ions below

    • Phosphate (P5+ O48-) 3-

    • Chlorate (Cl5+ O36-) –

    • Sulfite (S4+O36- ) 2-

    • Hydroxide (O2-, H+)-

    HFinks '07


    Oxidation states of elements in polyatomic ions1
    Oxidation States of Elements in Polyatomic Ions ions below

    • Permanganate (Mn 7+ O42-) -

    • Nitrite (N 5+ O24-) –

    • Acetate (C26+H33-O24-) –

    HFinks '07


    What are the oxidation states of the atoms below
    What are the oxidation states of the atoms below? ions below

    • Sodium chlorine

    • Magnesium oxygen

    • Barium sulfur

    • Potassium fluoride

    • Aluminum bromine

    • Calcium iodine

    HFinks '07






    Metallic elements with variable oxidation numbers
    Metallic Elements With Variable Oxidation Numbers ions below

    • Transition metals, representative metals with p and d sublevels, and the inner transition metals typically have more than one oxidation state in compounds..

    • Electrons are lost in the following order: p,s,d

    HFinks '07


    All other oxidation numbers
    All Other Oxidation Numbers ions below

    • Assigned so that the sum of the oxidation numbers of each element equals the net charge on the molecule or polyatomic ion.

    • In neutral compounds, the sum of the positive and negative charge must equal 0.

    HFinks '07


    Polyatomic elements
    Polyatomic Elements ions below

    • These elements exist as neutral molecules in nature.

    HFinks '07


    Naming binary compounds table in packet
    Naming Binary Compounds ions below(Table in Packet)

    • Sodium & chlorine

    • Magnesium & oxygen

    • Lithium & fluorine

    • Iron & sulfur

    • Copper (II) & chlorine

    • Lead (II) & chlorine

    • Barium & oxygen

    • Calcium & hydrogen

    HFinks '07


    Naming binary compounds table in packet1
    Naming Binary Compounds ions below (Table in Packet)

    • NaCl sodium chloride

    • MgO magnesium oxide

    • LiF lithium fluoride

    • FeS iron (II) sulfide

    • CuCl2 copper (II) chloride

    • PbCl2 iron (II) chloride

    • AlCl3 aluminum chloride

    • BaO barium oxide

    • CaH2 calcium hydride

    HFinks '07



    Isoelectronic
    Isoelectronic? Numbers.

    • These elements are not isoelectronic with a noble gas when the outermost electrons are lost.

    • That is, they will not have the same number of electrons as the noble gas before it them in the periodic table.

    HFinks '07


    Experiment water of hydration
    EXPERIMENT: WATER OF HYDRATION Numbers.

    • Purpose:

    • Determine that all the water has been driven from a hydrate by heating a sample to constant mass.

    • Use experimental data to calculate the moles of water released by a hydrate

    • Infer the empirical formula of the hydrate from the formula of the anhydrous compound and experimental data.

    HFinks '07


    Common oxidation numbers for monatomic ions
    Common Oxidation Numbers for Monatomic Ions Numbers.

    • Na + = sodium Cl- = chloride

    • Mg2+ = magnesium S2- = sulfide

    • Ba2+ = barium O2- = oxygen

    • K + = potassium F- = fluoride

    • Al3+ = aluminum Br- = bromide

    • Sr2+ = strontium I- = iodide

    • Ca2+ = calcium

    HFinks '07


    Introduction
    Introduction Numbers.

    • Many ionic compounds, when crystallized from an aqueous solution, will take up definite amounts of water as an integral part of their crystal structure. This water of crystallization may be driven off by heating the hydrated substance to convert it to its anhydrous form.

    HFinks '07


    Safety
    SAFETY Numbers.

    • Handle the crucible and cover with clean crucible tongs only.

    • Heat objects can be hot enough to burn even if they look cool.

    • Always use crucible tongs to handle crucibles and covers.

    HFinks '07


    Procedures
    Procedures Numbers.

    • 1. Mass the crucible and cover. Record

    • 2. Add the magnesium sulfate to the crucible.

    • 3. Mass the crucible, cover and magnesium sulfate. Record

    • 4. Place the crucible and cover on the triangle as demonstrated.

    • 5. Heat slowly for 3 min with the crucible partially covered.

    • 6. Heat strongly for 10 min.

    • 7. Remove crucible, cover and contents and let cool for 5 minutes.

    • 8. Mass the crucible, cover and magnesium sulfate.

    • 9. Heat strongly for 5 minutes.

    • 10. Repeat #7 & 8.

    HFinks '07


    Cleanup disposal
    CLEANUP & DISPOSAL Numbers.

    • Clean all apparatus and your lab station.

    • Return equipment to its proper place.

    • Dispose of the magnesium sulfate in the sink. Flush with water.

    • Wash your hands thoroughly after all work is finished and before you leave the lab.

    HFinks '07


    Data table
    DATA TABLE Numbers.

    • 1. Mass of empty crucible and cover

    • 2. Mass of crucible, cover and magnesium

      sulfate hydrate

    • 3. Mass of crucible, cover and anhydrous

      magnesium sulfate after 1st heating

    • 4. Mass of crucible, cover and anhydrous

      magnesium sulfate after 2nd heating.

    HFinks '07


    Fundamentals of chemistry homework p 114 115 6 10
    Fundamentals of Chemistry Numbers.Homework: P. 114 – 115: 6 - 10

    • 6. How many valence electrons are in an atom of each of the following elements?

    • A) Ne = 8 E) Na = 1

    • B) Br = 7 F) As = 5

    • C) S = 6 G) Sn = 4

    • D) Sr = 2 H) In = 3

    HFinks '07


    Fc question 7
    FC : Question # 7 Numbers.

    • Classify each of the elements in question 6 as a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid.

    • A) Ne = nonmetal E) Na = metal

    • B) Br = nonmetal F) As = metalloid

    • C) S = nonmetal G) Sn = metal

    • D) Sr = metal H) In = metal

    HFinks '07


    Fc question 8
    FC : Question # 8 Numbers.

    Write the electron dot structure for each of the following elements. What is the group number of each element?

    • A) Cl = 7A or 17 E) Kr = 8A or 18

    • B) Mg = 2A F) Cs = 1A

    • C) C = 4 A or 14 G) O = 6A or 16

    • D) Bi = 6A or 15 H) P = 5A or 15

    HFinks '07


    Lewis structure
    Lewis Structure Numbers.

    Lewis structure is just the symbol of the

    element and the number of

    electrons on the outermost energy level.

    Example: sodium Na has one electron

    On its outermost energy level. Thus

    Na•

    HFinks '07


    Fc question 9
    FC : Question # 9 Numbers.

    • The electron dot structures of four elements are shown. Without referring to the periodic table, give the family name for each element.

    • A) iodine = halogen

    • B) barium = alkaline earth metal

    • C) rubidium = alkali metal

    • D) radon = noble gas

    HFinks '07


    Fc question 10
    FC : Question # 10 Numbers.

    • a) Find the synthetic elements on the

    • periodic table. b) What are the atomic numbers? c) Which synthetic elements are not found with

      the others on the periodic table?

    • B) Elements that are 93 and higher are synthetic elements.

    • C) Technetium (43) and promethium (61).

    HFinks '07


    Fc hwk p 115 11 15
    FC: Hwk.: P. 115 ( 11 – 15) Numbers.

    • List the elements along with their chemical symbols and atomic numbers that have names similar to the names of planets in the solar system.

    • Mercury = Hg (80)

    • Uranium = U (92)

    • Neptunium = Np (93)

    • Plutonium = Pu (94)

    HFinks '07


    Chapter 3

    HFinks '07


    Chapter 3

    HFinks '07


    Chapter 3

    • 14. Element (a) (b) (c) (d) Numbers.

    • hydrogen 1,1 nm g H(1 dot)

    • lithium 2,1 m s Li (1 dot)

    • nitrogen 2,15 nm g N (5 dots)

    • fluorine 2,17 nm g F (7 dots)

    • cobalt 4,9 m s

    • silver 5,11 m s

    • iodine 5,17 nm s I(7dots)

    • mercury 6,12 m l

    HFinks '07


    Chapter 3

    HFinks '07


    Chapter 3

    HFinks '07


    Naming ternary compounds table in packet
    Naming Ternary Compounds level electrons are farther from the nucleus and can move more freelyTable in Packet

    • Iron (II) sulfite

    • Copper (II) nitrate)

    • Calcium permanganate

    • Silver nitrate

    • Potassium chlorate

    • Magnesium carbonate

    • Lead (II) hydroxide

    • Nickel (II) phosphate

    • Ammonium sulfite

    HFinks '07


    Chapter 3

    • 17. Bromine and mercury are liquids. level electrons are farther from the nucleus and can move more freely

    • Mercury is a metal because it has two valence electrons that are not tightly held.

    • Bromine is a nonmetal because it has seven valence electrons that are tightly held.

    HFinks '07



    Chapter 3

    HFinks '07


    Chapter 3

    HFinks '07 and the wavelength of the mitted X ray decreases.



    Question for today put in cw hw notebook ionic or molecular compounds
    Question For Today relatively abundant.(Put in Cw/Hw Notebook)Ionic or Molecular Compounds?

    • 1. sodium chloride NaCl

    • 2. barium oxide BaO

    • 3. carbon monoxide CO

    • 4. carbon dioxide CO2

    • 5. calcium carbonate CaCO3

    • 6. sulfur dioxide SO2

    • 7. sodium nitrate NaNO3

    HFinks '07