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Mastoids and Organs of Hearing. Fall 2007. Ear. Temporal Bones. Situated on each side of cranial base between greater wings of sphenoid and occipital bone Form large part of middle cranial fossa and a small part of posterior cranial fossa. Temporal Bones. Consist of Squamous portion

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temporal bones
Temporal Bones
  • Situated on each side of cranial base between greater wings of sphenoid and occipital bone
  • Form large part of middle cranial fossa and a small part of posterior cranial fossa
temporal bones1
Temporal Bones
  • Consist of
    • Squamous portion
    • Tympanic portion
    • Styloid process
    • Zygomatic process
    • Petromastoid portion which contain the organs for hearing and equilibrium
temporal bones2
Temporal Bones
  • Tympanic portion = located below squama and in front of petromastoid portion
    • Forms anterior wall, inferior wall and part of posterior walls of the EAM
  • Styloid process = slender, pointed bone projecting inferiorly, anteriorly, and slightly medially from inferior surface of tympanic portion
temporal bones3
Temporal Bones
  • Petromastoid portion combines petrous and mastoid portions
    • Forms the inferior, posterior part of the temporal bone
    • Articulates with parietal bone at its superior border and with occipital bone at its posterior border
    • Usually contains air cells, which vary greatly in size, number, and pneumatization
temporal bones4
Temporal Bones
  • Mastoid process = conical process projecting from mastoid portion
  • Petrous portion projects medially and anteriorly between greater wing of sphenoid and occipital bone
    • Also called petrous pyramid
    • Conical or pyramidal in shape
    • Thickest and densest portion of cranium
    • Contains the organs of hearing and balance
temporal bones5
Temporal Bones
  • Auditory ossicles = bones of middle ear
    • Malleus
    • Incus
    • Stapes
  • Temporal bone articulates with the parietal, occipital, sphenoid, zygoma, and mandible
temporal bones6
Temporal Bones

Lateral view

temporal bones7
Temporal Bones

Anterior view

essential projections temporal bone
Essential Projections: Temporal Bone
  • Axiolateral oblique (modified Law)
  • Axiolateral oblique (Stenvers)
  • Axiolateral oblique (Arcelin)
axiolateral oblique modified law
Axiolateral Oblique (Modified Law)
  • Prone or seated upright
  • Tape auricle forward
  • Place head in true lateral position with affected side closer to IR
  • IOML parallel with IR
  • IPL perpendicular to IR
  • MSP angled 15 degrees toward IR
axiolateral oblique modified law1
Axiolateral Oblique (Modified Law)
  • CR
    • Angled 15 degrees caudad to midpoint of IR
    • Exits mastoid tip closer to IR about 1 (2.5 cm) posterior to EAM
    • Enters 2 (5 cm) posterior to and superior to upper EAM
axiolateral oblique stenvers
Axiolateral Oblique (Stenvers)
  • Prone or seated upright
  • Rest head on forehead, nose, and cheek with side of interest on IR
  • IOML parallel with transverse axis of IR
  • MSP at 45-degree angle from IR
axiolateral oblique stenvers1
Axiolateral Oblique (Stenvers)
  • CR
    • Angled 12 degrees cephalad
    • Enters about 3 to 4 (7.6 to 10 cm) posterior and ½ (1.3 cm) inferior to upside EAM
    • Exits 1 (2.5 cm) anterior to downside EAM
    • IR and CR centered
axiolateral oblique temporal bone arcelin
Axiolateral Oblique Temporal Bone (Arcelin)
  • Supine
  • MSP centered to midline
  • Rotate face away from side of interest to place MSP at 45-degree angle with plane of IR
  • IOML perpendicular to IR
axiolateral oblique temporal bone arcelin1
Axiolateral Oblique Temporal Bone (Arcelin)
  • CR
    • Angled 10 degrees caudad
    • Enters temporal area at 1 (2.5 cm) anterior to EAM and ¾ (1.9) cm above it
    • Center IR and CR
axiolateral oblique temporal bone modified law
Axiolateral Oblique Temporal Bone (Modified Law)
  • Mastoid process closer to IR
  • Air cells centered to IR
  • Opposite mastoid process inferior and anterior mastoid of interest
  • Auricle of ear not superimposing mastoid
  • Superimposition of IAM and EAM
  • TMJ visible anterior to mastoid process
  • Close beam restriction
axiolateral oblique temporal bone stenvers
Axiolateral Oblique Temporal Bone (Stenvers)
  • Petromastoid portion in profile
  • Lateral border of skull to lateral border of orbit
  • Petrous ridge extended to a point about two thirds up lateral border of orbit Mastoid process in profile below cranium
  • Posterior margin of mandibular ramus superimposing lateral border of C-spine
  • Mandibular condyle projecting over atlas near petrosa
  • Close beam restriction
axiolateral oblique temporal bone arcelin2
Axiolateral Oblique Temporal Bone (Arcelin)
  • Petromastoid portion in profile
  • Lateral border of skull to lateral border of orbit
  • Petrous ridge lying horizontal about two thirds up lateral border of orbit Mastoid process in profile below cranium
  • Posterior margin of mandibular ramus superimposing lateral border of C-spine
  • Mandibular condyle projecting over atlas near petrosa
  • Close beam restriction