Lecture 14
Download
1 / 46

- PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 194 Views
  • Uploaded on

Lecture 14. What % of sexually active women have HPV (human papilloma virus, causes genital warts)? 10% 20% 50% 70% 90%. Fostering Critical Thinking in a large lecture Microbiology course. Erica Suchman, Ph.D. Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '' - vui


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Lecture 14 l.jpg
Lecture 14

  • What % of sexually active women have HPV (human papilloma virus, causes genital warts)?

  • 10%

  • 20%

  • 50%

  • 70%

  • 90%


Fostering critical thinking in a large lecture microbiology course l.jpg

Fostering Critical Thinking in a large lecture Microbiology course

Erica Suchman, Ph.D.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology

Colorado State University


My class l.jpg
My class course

  • Junior and Senior level students

  • 10% micro majors

  • 90% from 30 other majors

  • 70-200 students/section

  • 3, 1 hour lectures, separate lab


The problem l.jpg
The Problem: course

The Solutions:

  • Students were unable to “think” about microbiology on exams.

  • Daily handouts with ungraded problems

    • This did not really work

  • Interactive Demos

  • Group Exams.

  • Clicker questions


The problem5 l.jpg
The Problem course

  • Students don’t know each other making it difficult to form study groups.

The Solution

  • Students card exchange, the first day of class

  • Group Exams


Forming groups l.jpg
Forming Groups course

  • Students are allowed to self select groups

  • minimum 4 students can have as many as they want

    • Big Debate: self selection vs. assigned groups


Group exams l.jpg
Group Exams course

  • Group exams are designed to make students use the material & critical thinking to solve problems.

  • Group exams are designed to be too difficult to answer during one class period.

  • Students are told the types of questions asked on the group exams will be used on their individual exams.


Group exams8 l.jpg
Group Exams course

  • Students are given the exams 1 week before they are to take them.

  • They are told they are expected to work on these outside of class, & that they will not be able to finish them if they come to class unprepared.

  • They have 35 minutes, the last 15 minutes of class we go over the answers.


Group exams9 l.jpg
Group Exams course

  • Exam day the group decides on best answer, fills out answer sheet & turns it in for a group score.

  • Students may fill in a page of dissent.

  • If the dissenter is correct only they will get the points, if they are wrong only they will lose points.

  • Students must be present during the group exam to get credit. I verify the presence of students during the exam, helps me to learn their names.

  • The last 15 minutes of class the students develop the key by answering questions about the group exam using their clickers.


Metabolism group exam l.jpg
Metabolism Group exam course

  • 1. Your first assignment is to provide information to the firm BigMoney Inc, interested in using microbes to clean toxic spills (bioremediation). BigMoney Inc. has had a major spill of inorganic N02- . They want to know on a strictly theoretical basis if there are any types of bacteria that could metabolize N02- to give rise to NH4?


Answer l.jpg
ANSWER course

N02-  NH4 Nitrite is reduced. Which means that Nitrite is accepting electrons. As this is a non-Oxygen acceptor it is by definition anaerobic. Nitrite could serve as the final electron acceptor in either anaerobic respiration or anaerobic chemolithotrophy. In anaerobic respiration Nitrite would accept electrons from organic materials and in chemolithotrophy Nitrite would accept electrons from inorganic materials.


Group exams we do l.jpg
Group exams we do course

1: Determining the identity of field isolated organism based on their characteristics: comparing eubacteria, archea, & eukaryotes; classification.

2: Metabolism & bioremediation

3: Transcription, translation and mutations

4: Viral life cycles and anti-viral drugs.


The problem13 l.jpg
The Problem course

  • Students can’t visualize and see how they might use complicated biological processes from traditional lectures

The Solution

  • In class student centered demonstrations

  • Clicker questions



Student centered demos l.jpg
Student centered Demos course

  • Conjugation and Hfr mapping

  • Transduction

  • Transcription

  • Translation

  • The Ames test

  • Isolating auxotropic mutants (His-)

  • Herd immunity


Clicker questions should have a goal l.jpg
Clicker questions should have a goal course

  • My goals:

    • 1. Make sure I see if they are understanding difficult topics so I will know if I need to talk more about this topic

      • (studied, ~84 times went over a concept again due to poor response on clicker question)

    • 2. Let them see the ways they need to be able to use and think about concepts, re-enforce that memorization alone is not going to get them an A

    • 3. Keep them involved with the topic during class, reduce the passive nature of our exchange

    • 4. Review information discussed in a previous class period that will be needed for today


Questions should not be l.jpg
Questions should not be course

  • Used only as an attendance tool

  • Used only as a quizzing tool

  • Used only infrequently

  • Used when use will not augment learning


Extra credit questions l.jpg
Extra Credit Questions course

  • The second class starts the students are asked to answer a question from the previous lecture.

  • They have 45 seconds to answer

  • If they get it correct they can get extra credit.

  • 15 times during the semester I pick the start of class question to be worth extra credit, if they got the correct answer on that day they can get 1 point for a total of 15 points (out of 600).


Not for credit questions to increase learning l.jpg
Not for credit questions to increase learning course

  • The following are examples of questions I use to ensure that

    • I can see if the students understand the concepts

    • Students can see the ways I expect them to be able to use information, not just memorize information

  • A technique I often use is to have students answer alone, I show them the class’ answers, but no correct answer, they then talk about it and re-answer

    • The percent answering correct increases on average of 22%


Example shapes arrangements l.jpg
Example: Shapes, & arrangements course

  • cocci (s. Coccus): round, spherical

    • Diplococci,  remain together, pairs

    • Streptococcus,  remain together, long chains

    • Staphylococcus,  in random planes, grape like clusters

    • Tetrads,  in 2 planes, 4 cell groups

    • Sarcina,  in 3 planes, 8 cell groups


Slide21 l.jpg

Justice and Suchman


Slide22 l.jpg

  • Diplobacillus, ratios, different ends, flat, round remain together, pairs

  • Streptobacillus,  remain together, long chains

  • Vibrios, curved rods, commas

Justice and Suchman


Spirals long rods twisted into corkscrews l.jpg
Spirals, long rods twisted into corkscrews ratios, different ends, flat, round

spirilla, corkscrew with flagella

  • spirochete, corkscrew

  • no external flagella


5 what is the correct shape and arrangement for the following bacteria l.jpg
5. What is the correct shape and arrangement for the following bacteria?

  • Staphylococcus D. Streptobacillus

  • Staphylobacillus E. Streptococci

  • Sarcina


Example 2 lymphocytes respond to epitopes on antigens l.jpg
Example 2: lymphocytes respond to following bacteria?Epitopes on Antigens

  • complex molecules

    • proteins

    • polysaccharides

    • glycolipids

  • Antigens may have more than 1 epitope which elicits lymphocyte response

Antigen with 2 epitopes

Antibodies bound to epitopes

Bacteria


Slide26 l.jpg

2. You have 3 proteins on the surface of one bacterium that serve as antigens. Protein A has 3 antibody binding sites, Protein B has 4, and Protein C has 2. How many different B lymphocytes will be specific for this bacterium?

  • 3: 1 for each antigen

  • 1: that is specific for this bacterium

  • 9: 1 for each epitope

No Answer


Start of class hook questions l.jpg
Start of class Hook questions serve as antigens. Protein A has 3 antibody binding sites, Protein B has 4, and Protein C has 2. How many different B lymphocytes will be specific for this bacterium?

  • Class starts with a “Hook question” that is up while I set up for class and I start ~2 minutes before class officially starts.

    • Misconception about microbiology

    • Usually about a disease

    • Something they find interesting

  • Allows students to get their clicker ready and gets them thinking about micro before class starts

  • Not worth any credit


How many women a year get diagnosed with hpv related cervical cancer in the us l.jpg
How many women a year get diagnosed with HPV related cervical cancer in the US?

A. 140

B. 1000

C. 6000

D. 14000

E. 100,000


Something new i tried s08 l.jpg
Something New I tried S08 cervical cancer in the US?

  • On any given day ~20% of my class was not in attendance.

  • I gave extra credit for near perfect attendance. Each student will get credit for clicking each day. If they don’t miss more than 2 classes they can get an extra 5 points of extra credit (out of 600 points)

    • All or nothing 0 or 5 no partial credit


Interesting things i learned l.jpg
Interesting things I learned cervical cancer in the US?

  • By giving them 5 points for not missing more than 2 classes 80% of the class did not miss more than 2 lectures (compared to 45.6% in F07)

  • The % of students who chose to purchase the clickers went up from 95.3 to 99.8%

  • The % of students who attended class each day increased to an average of 89.2% (from 80.52%)

  • The % of lectures attended by students increased to 90.6% (from 80.52%)


Grading l.jpg
Grading cervical cancer in the US?

  • Individual exams

    • 3 midterms 100 points each

    • final 200 points cumulative

  • Total points possible

    • 600 points

    • 500 from individual exams

    • 100 from group work (4 group exams 25 points each)

    • Up to 20 points extra credit 15 getting start of class questions correct, 5 for not missing more than 2 classes (average ~14)


Things i have learned l.jpg
Things I Have Learned cervical cancer in the US?

  • Marketing matters.

  • Pay attention to your goals while writing questions.

  • Although fostering critical thinking increased my workload, I feel it is worth the effort.


Our clicker study the literature tells us that l.jpg
Our clicker study: cervical cancer in the US?The Literature tells us that

  • New students or students with lower achievement levels have trouble in larger classes (Bordon and Burton 1999; Dillon and Kokkelenberg, 2002 ).

  • Research on learning shows that individuals make meaning in a variety of ways and that these ways may not be the same for each individual (Denig 2004 )

  • Learning takes place in social settings through interaction with others. In other words, some learners need to interact with others in order to make sense of new information prior to internalizing it (Vygotsky,1978). .


Research has documented a variety of benefits of using crs best reference duncan 2005 l.jpg
Research has documented a variety of benefits of using CRS cervical cancer in the US?(Best Reference Duncan, 2005)

  • Increased

    • Attendance

    • Preparation for class

    • Enthusiasm

    • Attentiveness

    • Participation

    • Confidence in learning

  • What they have not looked at is - does how you use the clickers have an effect on these benefits?


The study l.jpg
The Study cervical cancer in the US?

  • Instructor A (me) integrated CRS use throughout my lectures as well as beginning each lecture with an extra credit question covering the material from the previous lecture.

  • Instructor B (Ralph Smith) only used CRS for beginning of class extra credit questions


The following parameters were compared between the classes l.jpg
The following parameters were compared between the classes cervical cancer in the US?

1. The number of times students worked cooperatively during the semester

2. The number of times the instructor changed lecture due to lack of student comprehension

3. Performance on shared questions on exams that were either only covered by lecture in both sections, or by both lecture and CRS questions in section A

4. Attendance

5. Responses to a end of semester survey


Slide37 l.jpg

I reported making changes in lecture due to lack of student comprehension 83 more times than my teaching partner in section B that used CRS as only a quizzing tool



Slide39 l.jpg
Students in section A did better on all test questions, not just the ones that were covered by CRS questions as we predicted


Performance on beginning of class questions l.jpg
Performance on beginning of class questions just the ones that were covered by CRS questions as we predicted

  • The average percent correct was ~75% for both section A and B

  • This suggests the 2 classes should have performed similarly on exams


Statistics l.jpg
Statistics just the ones that were covered by CRS questions as we predicted

  • When student performance was compared between the 2 classes for

    • Section

    • Exam

    • Question type (CRS covered or not)

  • The only significant difference was between sections

  • With Section A performing significantly better on all types of questions and on all exams


Attendance l.jpg
Attendance? just the ones that were covered by CRS questions as we predicted

  • There was no difference between the sections in the students who purchased the clickers

  • However in section A 8% more students chose to purchase the optional clickers


And the survey says l.jpg
And the survey says…. just the ones that were covered by CRS questions as we predicted

Students in section A reported

  • feeling more confidence about their knowledge

  • More interaction with other students than usual

  • More ability to give the instructor feedback than they usually do

  • Less doubt about their progress

  • Greater confidence in their ability to form relationships between concepts

    Than students in section B


Want more info or to see all the exciting statistics showing what i am telling you is true l.jpg
Want more info, or to see all the exciting statistics showing what I am telling you is true?

  • Evaluating the Impact of a Classroom Response System in a Microbiology Course. Erica Suchman, Kay Uchiyama, Ralph Smith, Kim Bender, Journal of Microbiology Education, May 2006 Volume 7 pg 3-11


Other references l.jpg
Other References showing what I am telling you is true?

  • Blackman, M. S., Dooley, P., Kuchinski, B. and Chapman, D. 2002. It worked a different way. College Teaching50:27-28

  • Borden, V. M. H., and Burton, K. L. 1999. The impact of class size on student performance in introductory courses: AIR 1999 annual forum paper. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper, 21.

  • Bullock, D. W., LaBella, V. P., Clingan, T., Ding, Z., Stewart, G. and Thibado, P. M. 2002. Enhancing the student-instructor interaction frequency. The Physics Teacher 40 p.535-541

  • Denig, S. J. 2004. Multiple intelligences and learning styles: Two complementary dimensions. Teachers College Record 106:96-111

  • Dillon, M., and Kokkelenberg, E. C. 2002. The Effects of Class Size on Student Achievement in Higher Education: Applying an Earnings Function. In 42nd Annual AIR Forum. Ontario, Canada.

  • Duncan, D. 2005.Clickers in the classroom. Pearson, Addison Wesley, Boston, MA.

  • Elliott, C. 2003. Using a personal response system in economics teaching. International Review of Economics Education 1:80-86.

  • Roschelle, J., Penuel, W. R., and Abrahamson, L. 2004. Classroom response and communication systems: Research review and theory, p. 8. AERA 2004 paper proposal, San Diego, CA

  • Vygotsky, L. S. 1978. Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. p. 131. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

  • Slain, D., Abate, M., Hodges, B. M., Stamatakis, M. K., and Wolak, S. 2004. An interactive response system to promote active learning in the doctor of pharmacy curriculum. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 68:1-9

  • Wit, E. 2003. Who wants to be...The use of a personal response system in statistics teaching. MSOR Connections 3.


Want more info contact me at l.jpg
Want more info? Contact me at… showing what I am telling you is true?

  • [email protected]

  • The group exams can be found on the ASM Education Resources Web Page at:http://www.microbelibrary.org/

    Curriculum/page2.htm


ad