Let’s get to know each other… • On a half-sheet of paper (or the back of your Matter pre-test) write ONE thing you would like me to know about you. For example, you could tell me your favorite food, your best subject in school, your favorite book, or advice on how I can help you learn. • On the colored paper strip, write your name on one side and something you’re good at on the other. • Create a nametag – you can decorate it any way you like!
Ms. Wilk’s Classroom Expectations • Be prepared • Be respectful • Participate • Help each other • Try your best!
What is Matter? • Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space (volume). • Chemistry is the study of matter’s properties & how it changes.
The Particle Theory of Matter • All matter is made of extremely tiny particles • All pure substances are made up of their own kind of particle • All particles are moving • Particles at higher temperature move faster than those at lower temperature • Particles are attracted to each other.
1) What is matter made of? • Elements cannot be broken down into any other substance by either a physical or chemical change. • Atoms are the smallest possible particle of an element.
1) What is matter made of? • A Compound is made up of two or more elements that are combined chemically. • The smallest possible particle of a compound is called a molecule.
1) What is matter made of? Atoms and Molecules: Molecules are made up of groups of atoms. How many atoms are in each of these molecules? (p.98 in your textbook)
2) What is a pure substance? • Elements can only be broken down through a nuclear change. • Compounds can only be broken down through a chemical change. • Elements and compounds are considered pure substances • Because they cannot be broken down physically.
2) What is a pure substance? Because you cannot have half of an atom… Elements always combine into compounds according to a set ratio. This is known as the law of constant proportion.
3) How does matter move? • The atoms and molecules of solids vibrate very quickly in place. • The atoms and molecules of liquids flow around each other • The atoms and molecules of gases fly around at large distances.
SOLID • LIQUID GAS
4) What happens to matter when it is heated? ADDED HEAT INCREASED ENERGY/SPEED
5) How do particles attract? • Atoms are held together by chemical bonds. • Molecules are held together by electrostatic forces.
Mixtures • A Mixture is made of two or more substances (elements OR compounds) that are combined physically. • Components of mixtures can be combined in ANY ratio. • They can be separated by a physical change.
Mixtures • Heterogeneous mixtures have visible separate parts that can be easily separated by moving the parts around. • (hetero = different) • Homogenous mixtures are combined so smoothly that you cannot see the separate parts. However, they can still be separated through a physical change. • (homo = same)
Types of Mixtures Mixtures Which of these foods are heterogeneous and which are homogeneous? (p. 100)
Separating Mixtures (p.101) Remember! Changes of state can be used to separate mixtures because each substance has a different boiling or melting point.
Separating Mixtures (p.101) Ink (and other pigments) can be separated by
Properties of Matter Complete the Venn diagram with the properties of water from a glacier and from a geyser.(p. 93 in your textbook)
Properties of Matter • Characteristics that describe matter are called properties. • Physical properties can be observed without changing matter into another substance. • Chemical properties describe matter’s ability (or inability) to change into another substance.
Review: measuring physical properties (p.103) Mass: Use the first scale to estimate the mass of the fish on the other scales.
Review: measuring physical properties (p.104) Mass: What is the mass of each object, measured in kilograms?
Review: measuring physical properties (p.105) Volume: What is the volume of the suitcase?
Review: measuring physical properties (p.105) Measuring Irregular Objects One way to measure the volume of an irregular object is to submerge it in liquid in a graduated cylinder. If the original liquid level for this cylinder was 15 mL, what is the volume of the rock?
Review: measuring physical properties (p.106) Density Liquids can form layers based on density. Which colored layer of liquid represents: 1) Water: 1.g/ml, 2) Honey: 1.36 g/ml, 3) Dish Soap: 1.03 g/ml, 4) Corn Syrup: 1.33 g/ml, 5) Vegetable oil: 0.91 g/ml?
Examples of Chemical Properties • Ability to… • …REACT!
Changes of Matter • A Physical Change alters the appearance or state of matter, but does not change it into a new substance. The physical and chemical properties of the substance remain the same. • A Chemical Change produces new substances with different physical and chemical properties than before.
Examples of Physical Change ADDED HEAT Remember: Adding heat changes the state of the substance, but not the identity.
Compounds From Elements What are the properties of copper, sulfur, and copper sulfide? (p. 99) Remember: Combining substances CHEMICALLY creates a NEW substance with NEW properties.