Chapter 15 Careers in Teaching Physical Education. chapter. 15. Careers in Teaching Physical Education. Kim C. Graber and Thomas J. Templin. Why Study Pedagogy of Physical Activity?.
Chapter 15 Careers in Teaching Physical Education chapter 15 Careers in Teaching Physical Education Kim C. Graber and Thomas J. Templin
Why Study Pedagogyof Physical Activity? Pedagogy of physical activity is the study of teaching physical activity. Effective instructors understand their subject and know how to convey it in a manner that will lead to better learning in students.
Importance of Pedagogical Knowledge A person with a background in pedagogy should be able to answer these questions: How will you get and keep the students’ attention? How much time should you spend talking, and how much time should students spend practicing? Will your methods work? How will you structure class to ensure that students have adequate time during class to improve their fitness levels? How will you motivate students to engage in physical activity outside of the school setting and make appropriate nutritional selections?
What Does a Physical Activity Pedagogue Do? Physical educators in public schools Swim instructors, recreation leaders Instructors at corporate fitness centers or community recreation centers Specialists (golf or tennis pros) Professors
Key Pedagogical Principles Based on Research Begin to develop expertise by acquiring experience and new knowledge. Provide appropriate practice. Provide a high amount of academic learning time. Always be concerned about class management and discipline. Hold learners accountable. Provide clear, specific feedback. Develop knowledge about alternative curricular models. Ensure an equitable learning environment that addresses the individual needs of all learners. Consider how your expectations influence students. Be mindful of teacher–coach role conflict.
Teaching Expertise Continue to learn about teaching by reading and by attending professional conferences. Teaching experience alone does not guarantee expertise (burnout and boredom are potential risks).
Appropriate Practice Experiences for Students For students to succeed at any skill, they must be exposed to appropriate practice. (The principle of quality and the principle of quantity are discussed in chapter 3.)
Active Learning Time Time on task, also called engaged time, is defined as the time students spend actually doing physical activity or sport. Students should spend at least 50% of the time appropriately engaged (performing correctly with frequent success); this is called academic learning, or functional learning, time.
Effective Class Management and Discipline Class management involves organizing students in such a way that learning is most likely to occur, whereas discipline involves teaching rules, enforcing them when they are broken, and rewarding exceptional behavior. Instructors can best assist students as they learn rules and routines by (1) having high expectations, (2) being firm but warm, (3) developing clear rules, and (4) describing how rules will be enforced.
Accountability Students manipulate the learning environment when they engage in off-task behaviors or become competent bystanders (well-behaved students who consistently avoid participation without attracting notice). Educators that ignore off-task behavior encourage further manipulation. Students learn accountability through clearly stated and consistently enforced expectations. Instructors demonstrate “with-it-ness” by knowing what’s happening in the learning environment and by displaying this awareness through oral or other communication with students.
Specific Feedback Common instructor mistakes when providing feedback: Feedback is often incorrect. Teachers sometimes focus on an aspect of performance that does not require feedback while neglecting an area that does require feedback. Teachers provide less feedback during game play. Feedback provided during game play can be valuable; it gives all students information about ways to improve. Teachers can increase the probability that instruction will be effective by providing appropriate learning activities; maximal active learning time; and correct, prompt, and specific feedback.
Alternative Curriculums The elective curriculum The fitness curriculum The sport education model The wilderness and adventure education curriculum The social development model The teaching games for understanding model Effective teachers are concerned with implementing curricular models that are interesting to students and produce the greatest opportunity for student learning.
Equity Issues and Student Needs Common forms of discrimination: Having a bias against students with less ability (e.g., using elimination games) Singling out obese and out-of-shape students in negative ways Allowing other students to ridicule or embarrass low-skilled or obese students Neglecting to adjust the teaching approach for students who carry personal problems into the learning environment
Expectations for Students Self-fulfilling prophecy,or thePygmalion effect Context is equally likely to create impressions about performance. Learned helplessness may manifest as exerting little effort, becoming abusive, blaming others, or quickly conceding failure. Teachers must continually assess their expectations and be cautious when communicating expectations to learners.
Teacher–Coach Role Conflict Role conflict is defined as two or more incompatible roles that are difficult to perform simultaneously. Role withdrawal or retreatism Both teaching and coaching are satisfying career choices, but people must be careful to fulfill the obligations of each role if they elect to engage in both simultaneously.
Knowledge and Research • Although professional practice knowledge is a powerful source of information, such knowledge is not a substitute for thoughtful consideration of the available research literature on effective teaching. • The Journal of Teaching in Physical Education is a good publication that features articles on this type of research.
Teaching Settings The enjoyment of the instructor is influenced by many factors, including their work environment (i.e., teaching setting). The environment in which teachers work can facilitate their success. Gymnasiums that are cheerful and well equipped also send a message to students about the importance of the subject matter.
Workplace Conditions Characteristics of positive work environments Characteristics of negative work environments Overcoming a negative environment Workplace conditions have the potential to facilitate or constrain the physical activity instructor.
Teachers and students have similar views of the purpose of physical education: exposure to lifetime activities. Fitness activities have little relationship to development of health- or skill-related fitness. Teachers spend too much time on class management. Teacher autonomy born out of benign neglect. Teachers have limited goals for students. Teachers validate self-worth through coaching and officiating. Gymnasiums can be well-managed and happy places. Physical education curriculum is consistent among teachers. Instruction is casual; premium on learning is mostly absent. Student evaluation not based on measurement of performance but behavioral standards. More than half of students like physical education less and value it less than other subjects. See full description on page 425 in the textbook. Current State of SecondaryPhysical Education O’Sullivan, M. (Ed.). 1994. High school physical education teachers: Their world of work [Monograph]. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 13, 323-441.
Innovative instructional strategies Novel curriculums Integration of physical education and other subjects High-profile public relations programs Supportive colleagues and administrators Adequate funding Exemplary classroom management strategies Involvement in professional development After-school programs for students and adults Modeling of athletic skill and fitness Promotion of equitable learning settings Exemplary Physical Education
Becoming an Outstanding Physical Education Teacher Develop teaching expertise. Design appropriate practice experiences for students. Provide active learning time. Manage and discipline classes effectively. Hold students accountable. Supply students with specific feedback. Consider incorporating alternative curriculums in your program. Address equity issues and student needs. Maintain realistic expectations of students. Minimize teacher–coach role conflict.
Approachable Challenging Competent Contagious Courteous Caring and loving Energetic Engaging Entertaining Enthusiastic Exciting Experienced Fun and goofy Informative Inspiring Knowledgeable Meaningful Motivating Passionate Personable Positive Relevant Effective Teachers
Career Options Physical education teacher in the schools Teacher in higher education settings Adapted physical education teacher Coach (public schools or higher education)
Content knowledge Growth and development Diverse learners Management and motivation Communication Planning and instruction Student assessment Reflection Technology Collaboration NASPE Standards for Beginning Physical Education Teachers National Standards for Beginning Physical Education Teachers (2003) reprinted with permission from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), 1900 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191-1599.
Advice for Future Teachers Never stop learning to teach. Join professional associations (student membership). Read research literature.
Major Professional Associations for Sport Pedagogy American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) Curriculum and Instruction Academy (a division of NASPE) American Educational Research Association (AERA) Special Interest Group (SIG): Research on learning and instruction in physical education (a division of AERA) National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education (NAKPEHE) Association Internationale des Ecoles Superieures d΄Education Physique (AIESEP)
Journals That Publish Sport Pedagogy Research Action in Teacher Education American Educational Research Journal College Student Journal Educational Technology Elementary School Journal High School Journal International Journal of Physical Education Journal of Educational Research Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance Journal of Research and Development in Education Journal of Teacher Education (continued)
Journals That Publish Sport Pedagogy Research (continued) Journal of Teaching in Physical Education Physical Education and Health Journal Physical Educator Quest Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport Sport Education and Society Strategies Teaching and Teacher Education
Make a Commitment to Sport Pedagogy Remain committed to student learning, effective teaching practices, ongoing development of subject matter expertise, professional involvement, and believing you can make a difference in the lives of children.