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The Renaissance. Overview. The Renaissance. Renaissance = “rebirth” Where? N. Italy, post-Plague (1350) What was reborn? Renewed interest in classical learning and legacy of ancient Greece and Rome Deliberate rejection of advances made during the Middle Ages

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The Renaissance

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    Presentation Transcript
    1. The Renaissance Overview

    2. The Renaissance • Renaissance = “rebirth” • Where? N. Italy, post-Plague (1350) • What was reborn? • Renewed interest in classical learning and legacy of ancient Greece and Rome • Deliberate rejection of advances made during the Middle Ages • Rebirth of spirit and creativity

    3. Scholasticism Emphasis on reading a source, examining related documents Primary purpose is to find an answer to a question through a logical process Emphasis is on finding the one correct answer Humanism Individuals should find the truth, don’t wait for it to be handed to you Humans have a “spark” Many ways to discover an answer Rarely just one answer Philosophy

    4. Manorialism System of dependence between manor lords and those who work the land Barter Society Goods and services are exchanged. No money is exchanged. Merchant Princes Extremely wealthy De Medici: powerful banking family from Florence Wealth = political power Money, power create greed and abuse of power Money Economy “Commercial Revolution” 1520-1650 Networks of international trade (including the New World) Winners:Portugal, Spain, England, France Economics

    5. Feudalism Reciprocal obligations between the three major groups of Medieval society City-states in Northern Italy No strong monarchies Good: wealthy patrons, interested in civic improvement Bad: Greed, jealousy amongst wealthy families Emergence of Nation-States in Northern Europe State = political entity Nation = cultural or ethnic entity United by common language, culture, and values Politics

    6. Medieval Stylized, religious themes Art is created to inform, teach Stiff, less realistic Renaissance Harmony, balance, proportion Modeled after Classic Greece and Rome Less emphasis on strictly religious themes Influenced by Humanism Art is created to delight and please the viewer The Arts

    7. Renaissance Sculpture

    8. Renaissance Paintings

    9. School of Athens

    10. Birth of Venus -- Botticelli

    11. Architecture

    12. Medieval = God Centered Domination of Catholic Church People are told what to think about scriptures Church is seen as the most reliable source of information Clergy are revered, trusted Renaissance = Man centered Individual interpretation of scriptures Disillusionment Corruption Great Schism (Avignon) Groundwork laid for Protestant Reformation Reform the Catholic Church Martin Luther, 1517 Religion

    13. Feudalism System of protection, strict hierarchy Chivalry Code of Knighthood Emphasizes virtues such as honor, bravery, loyalty, humility, and sacrifice Individualism Humans possess the ability to think and discover Society

    14. Why Italy • Latin roots, heritage never completely abandoned • Latin = language of law and business • Plentiful ruins, reminders of the past • Universities • France and England: 100 Years War • Spain: fighting the Muslims • Feudalism had never been strong in Italy

    15. Why Italy? • Italian cities = trade • Firenze, Pisa, Venezia • Wealth = trade and banking • Rise of merchant families = support of the arts • Strong and numerous elite urban societies

    16. Fall of Constantinople -- 1453 • Byzantine Emperor outnumbered: 7000 vs. 200,000 Turkish troops • Greek scholars move to Italy • Brought knowledge of Hebrew • Comparison between biblical translations began comparisons in other areas: politics, history, philosophy

    17. Why Florence? “Athens of the Renaissance” • Art and literature center • 1425: population = 60,000 • Self-governed, independent city-state • Strong sense of responsibility to state • Strong economy, strong government -- Banking is important industry (no port, like Venice and Genoa) -- Gold coin (the Florin) common Currency of Europe

    18. Role of Other Cities • Venice • End of Silk Road • Outfitted Crusaders • Doges = opulence, power

    19. Important PeopleofThe Renaissance

    20. Petrarch • 1300s • Italian poet, writer • Wrote in the vernacular • “To be able to say how much you love is to love but little” • Father of Humanism • Traveled widely • Collected Latin manuscripts • Re-discovered Cicero

    21. A Word about Cicero • 106-43 BC • Roman statesman, political scientist, philosopher, orator • Denounced corrupt government • Revered by Humanist scholars • Example of l’uomo universale

    22. Pico della Mirandola • Oration on the Dignity of Man • Noble = human quest for knowledge • Man is better than animal • ability to think = elevated place in the “great chain of being”

    23. Great Chain of Being

    24. Borgia Family • Alexander VI: nephew of a Pope • Cesare Borgia: commander of papal armies, model “prince” • Lucretia Borgia: pathetic pawn

    25. “Drink, drink from the golden cup . . .”

    26. Savonarola • Being Christian = being good and virtuous. Avoid excess. • Goal: correct the Pope and all abuse • Preached that the end of the world was coming (1500) • Bonfire of the Vanities • Excommunicated, burned as a heretic (1498)

    27. De Medici Family • Cosimo • Founder of dynasty • Merchant, Banker • Lorenzo (The Magnificent) • politician, patron • Life = golden age of renaissance • Ruled Florence indirectly

    28. Adoration of the Magi– Botticelli, 1475

    29. Catherine de Medici • Great grand-daughter of Lorenzo • Wife of Henry II of France • Regent for 2 sons, mother of 3 kings of France • Political upheaval • Machiavellian