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Minerals. Day 3 Student Notes Quiz Monday!. MINERALS. Elements are the basic building blocks of minerals ! But what is a mineral ? Naturally Occurring Solid Substance Orderly Crystalline Structure Definite Chemical Composition Generally considered inorganic.

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Day 3 Student Notes

Quiz Monday!

  • Elementsare the basic building blocks of minerals!
  • But what is a mineral?
    • Naturally Occurring
    • Solid Substance
    • Orderly Crystalline Structure
    • Definite Chemical Composition
    • Generally considered inorganic
minerals is it a mineral
MINERALS – Is it a mineral?
  • Why would ice be considered a mineral, but water would not?
  • Is coal considered a mineral? Explain.
  • When you “grow a crystal” from a kit, are you creating a mineral? Explain.
  • Name a mineral that you know of – use the definition of a mineral to write a sentence verifying it is a mineral.
mineral formation
Mineral Formation
  • Minerals are formed in a few ways:
    • Crystallization from magma
    • Precipitation
    • Pressure and Temperature (within the earth)
    • Hydrothermal Solutions

Minerals formed by the

crystallization of magma

mineral formation1
Mineral Formation
  • For each of these ways a mineral is formed, the bottom line is that elements are bonding together.
  • Today we are going to talk about the how they are categorized according to which elements are bonded together.
mineral formation2
Mineral Formation
  • Mineral Groups
  • Minerals can be classified based on their composition.
  • We will discuss 6 mineral groups today and how you can know which groups minerals belong to based on their chemical composition.
2 2 minerals
2.2 Minerals

1. Silicates

  • Silicon and oxygen combine to form a structure called the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron. This silicon-oxygen tetrahedron provides the framework of everysilicate mineral.
2 2 minerals1
2.2 Minerals

1. Silicates

  • Use the periodic table to find the symbol for Silicon.
  • Use the table to find the symbol for oxygen.
  • Whenever you see these symbols together in a compound it will be classified as a silicate.
  • Example: Orthoclase Feldspar - KAlSi 3O 8
  • What other elements do you see in this compound?
  • Other examples: Quartz – SiO2
sio 2 quartz used to make glass and gemstones
SiO2 - Quartz– used to make glass and gemstones.

It is one of the most abundant minerals found on earth!

2 2 minerals2
Mineral Groups2.2 Minerals

2. Carbonates

  • Minerals that contain the elements carbon, oxygen, and one or more other metallicelements
  • Aragonite – a collectors item
2 2 minerals3
Mineral Groups2.2 Minerals

3. Oxides

  • Minerals that contain oxygen and one or more other elements, which are usually metals

Ice and snow

Zincite – used in semiconductors

2 2 minerals4
Mineral Groups2.2 Minerals

4. Sulfates and Sulfides

  • Minerals that contain the element sulfur

5. Halides

  • Minerals that contain a halogen ion plus one or more other elements

6. Native elements

  • Minerals that exist in relatively pure form
  • Name 3 examples of Native Elements:

Galena – mined for lead

Pyrite – “fool’s gold” – mined for iron

applying mineral groups
Applying Mineral Groups

To which mineral group do each of the following minerals belong:

  • Bornite (Cu5FeS4)
  • Cuprite (Cu2O)
  • Magnesite (MgCO3)
  • Barite (BaSO4)

Answer individually, after 5 minutes you will compare with a partner.

mineral formation3
Mineral Formation

Answer the following questions:

  • Name the first four major groups of minerals, and give at least two examples of minerals in each group.
  • Compare and contrast oxides and silicates.