Critical pl, power, poverty reduction, postmodern Pwk PTSft ub – planning theory
Critical planning • Critical planning in developing countries in 2000s: • Resource management • Integrating Mineral Development and Biodiversity Conservation into Regional Land-Use Planning • Land Policies For Growth And Poverty Reduction • Poverty and Environment • Urban Economy • Paradigm for A New Planning
Resource management • Indikator apa yang terbaik sebagai alat ukur? • Bagaimana alat ukur tsb diinterpretasikan dengan baik? Criteria for indicators: • Be easily measured (mudah diukur) • Be sensitive to stresses of the system (sensitif thd tekanan dari sistem) • Respond to stress in a predictable manner • Be anticipatory: signify an impending change in key characteristics of the ecological system. • Predict changes that can be averted by management actions • Be integrative • Have a known response to natural disturbances, anthropogenic stresses, and ecological changes over time • Have low variability in response.
Prosedur dalam memilih indikator: • Step 1: Identify Goals for the System. • Step 2: Identify Key Characteristics of the Ecological System • Step 3: Identify Key Stresses • Step 4: Determine How Stresses May Affect Key Characteristics of the Ecological System • Step 5: Select Indicators • Step 6: Test Potential Indicators Against Criteria • Step 7: Select Final Indicators and Apply Them to the Decision-Making Process
Ecological indicators menawarkan alat untuk mengukur efek dari manajemen sumber daya. Tantangan utama adalah terkait dengan kompleksitas dari sistem ekologi. Kriteria dan prosedur untuk pemilihan indikator menawarkan cara terkait dengan kompleksitas tersebut. • Langkah berikutnya adalah mengimplementasikan indikator ke dalam praktik manajemen sumber daya.
Mengintegrasikan Mineral Development dan Biodiversity Conservation dalam Regional Land-Use Planning • Pertambangan, tidak seperti pertanian, bukan bagian permanen dari geografi dan economy dari banyak wilayah. Pertambangan adalah land use yang sifatnya temporer, terlokalisir dan dapat menghasilkan pendapatan besar dari area yang kecil. • Terdapat keinginan yang semakin tinggi dari masyarakat agar nilai lingkungan tetap dilindungi pada saat yang sama kita membangun pondasi ekonomi dan sosial. Harapan ini telah tertuang dalam konsep sustainable development.
Untuk kasus Indonesia perhatikan tentang fenomena ‘kutukan sumber daya alam’ • Ada kebutuhan untuk terus mengeksplorasi pertambangan.Konsep dari responsible mining: commitment to shared high values and delivery of better social and environmental performance – • The case: The Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development (MMSD) Project (an independent multi-stakeholder analysis of the issues surrounding mining and sustainable development, organized at global and regional levels).
Biodiversity and Regional Land-Use Planning Flambeau mine (Wisconsin) site before mining (foreground) and Flambeau River (upper background)
Land Use yang serasi dengan aspek sosial Issues (access to land and the ability to make productive use of such land is critical to poor people worldwide): • Farm Restructuring • Land Reform • Land Conflict • Land Taxation • State Land Ownership • Land Use Regulation • Land in the Broader Policy Context
Poverty reduction: • Relevance of land right: Empowerment of the Poor and Governance • Land policy: • Political and Social Changes (Eastern Europe) • Structural Reforms (Latin America) • Combination of Situations in South and East Asia • Land rights: • The initial distribution of land affects the nature and rate of long-termeconomic growth
The Basic Building Blocks of Poverty Reduction Strategy Increasing Incomes Reducing Expenses Four Pillars of Poverty Reduction Strategy Social Protection Creating Opportunity Community Empowerment Capacity Building Planning, Programming and Budgeting Mechanism Banking & non-banking financial institutions; private sector; community OECD Seminar, Paris
Poverty Reduction Strategy through Initiatives for Local Governance Improving Performance of Local Governance Ideal environment for investment Initiative for an effective poverty reduction • Public access for appropriate information • Participatory planning and decision making process • Public participation in development planning • Open process in formulating regional regulations • Policy and regulation reforms: clear vision and priority setting • Accountable local government and legislative: • Effective utilization of local budget according to local priority • Performance and output oriented • Clear local regulation towards a good governance • Independent public monitoring • Private investment that generates local economic and creating job opportunity • Involving NGOs in implementing and monitoring poverty reduction programs • Government program directed to fulfill the gap of poverty reduction programs OECD Seminar, Paris
Conceptual Framework of land rights: • Land rights are socialconventions about thedistribution of benefitsfrom land use • Property Rights as a Public Good • Property rights have publicgood characteristics • Public establishment ofproperty rights will preventresource dissipation,providing particularbenefits to the poor
Post modern planning? • Rethinking planning: • Planning has not tackled the root causes of urban problems because it was never meant to: • the scope, content and direction of planning are shaped by political struggles, at various spatial scales, in which the protagonists (and lines of cleavage) arise from the conflicts of interest endemic in capitalist society (H. Thomas, 1999: 27). • Planning exists to help the market and support capitalism, not challenge and supplant it.
Social theory • Nearly half a century on the Royal Town Planning Institute still sees the role of planners as ‘to advance the art and science of Town Planning for the benefit of the public’ (RTPI, 1999) • The Post-Modern Age is a time of incessant choosing. It’s an era when no orthodoxy can be adopted without self-consciousness and irony, because all traditions seem to have some validity. This is partly a consequence of what is called the information explosion, the advent of organised knowledge, world communication and cybernetics. (Charles Jencks 1989)
Social theory • The postmodern would be that which, in the modern, puts forward the unpresentable in presentation itself; that which denies itself the solace of good forms, the consensus of a taste which would make it possible to share collectively the nostalgia for the unattainable; that which searches for new presentations, not in order to enjoy them but in order to impart a stronger sense of the unpresentable (Lyotard, 1983: 68).
Some common themes emerge: (from social theory of post modernism) • A MICRO-POLITICS OF ANALYSIS • A MICRO-POLITICS OF RESISTANCE • Information Society: Five broad meanings behind the term ‘information society’ (Webster 1995) • Technological • Economic • Occupational • Spatial • Cultural
Fordism (loosely refers to the mass production) and Post-Fordism • Sensibility • 3 Criticism of the Postmodern: • First, that modernity’s critics have got it wrong. The contrasts with the pre-modern period are misleading and inaccurate and their position is unduly pessimistic and inchoate • Second, while modernity has a ‘sombre’ (as opposed to ‘dark’) side (and while some of the critiques of the critical-moderns are accepted), modernity is (and must be) redeemable.
Third, we are stuck with modernity, whether we like it or not, so let’s make the best of it rather than trying to destroy it. • So What is the Postmodern? • 1 DIFFERENCE OR CONTINUITY? • 2 NEW OR DIFFERENT TIMES? • 3 POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE SOCIAL THEORY? • Planning is modern project • Planning as a Postmodern Project?
conclusion • Can we have a postmodern planning? No (an answer that is itself not postmodern). Can we have a planning that is more open, sensitive to the needs of the many, radically challenges existing notions and actively seeks to encourage wider participation from those previously excluded in an continuously open discourse? Yes. • See you next week