Chapter 3: The British in North America. At the same time as the French, Britain wanted to expand it’s empire through colonies too Like the French, many first colonies failed because they couldn’t live in the New World Walter Raleigh tried twice to do this in 1585 and 1587.
At the same time as the French, Britain wanted to expand it’s empire through colonies too • Like the French, many first colonies failed because they couldn’t live in the New World • Walter Raleigh tried twice to do this in 1585 and 1587
Why did Britain need the colonies? • Economy: other countries were becoming rich through mercantilism – selling the resources taken from colonies • Competition: other countries were expanding their empires and becoming bigger than Britain • Quality of Life: Britain was overcrowded, and had little farmland • Religious Freedom: many small religions within Christianity were treated badly in Britain. They were free in the New World
New England • “New England” was 13 colonies in what is now the United States • Each colony had it’s own government, religious groups, and economy – the way it made money • Ex: Virginia was good for growing tobacco. It was owned by a religious group called the “Pilgrims”
New England vs. New France • New England was much more successful than New France for a number of reasons (p. 57): goals, climate, employment, religion, trade
John Cabot and the “New Found Land” • Cabot landed here in 1497 • The thing that impressed him most was the amount of fish • He claimed the land for Britain, but Britain did not want to stay because the climate was too harsh, and the soil wasn’t good for farming • The fisherman only came during the warm months of the year – until competition began, and some people attempted to stay in Newfoundland year long.
Over time, more people also stayed, and the King of Britain decided to create a colony out of it
The Beothuk • First Nation group who lived on Newfoundland • Went extinct • “Shanawdithit” was the last remaining Beothuk. Since her people died off, Europeans didn’t know anything about them. She told them all they could
Britain vs. France • Britain and France were constantly fighting in Europe • In 1713, they signed the “Treaty of Utrect” for peace • In this agreement, they two sides allowed each other to keep land in the New World • France got Louisbourg (in Cape Breton) • Britain got the French colony of Acadia
The Creation of Halifax • Britain began to be worried about the amount of French in Nova Scotia (which they owned now) • 1749: Britain wanted to show that they had sovereignty – to tighten its control over the colony • They wanted to build a military base where the Mi’kmaq called “Chebucto” meaning “the biggest harbour” • It is one of the biggest, and deepest, harbours in the world!
The British called the place “Halifax,” named after the military officer who led to its creation • They sent 16 ships, and 2600 soldiers to create the colony • At the top of a huge hill in Halifax, they built a citadel – a military fort, shaped like a 6 pointed star
For a long time, it was ruled by a Governor and assistants • In 1758, for the first time in North America, citizens were given the chance to choose their own leader
The Mi’kmaq perspective • The Mi’kmaq had traditionally camped in the area near Halifax – they didn’t like what the British were doing • The French, mad at the British, encouraged the Mi’kmaq to “make life difficult for the British” • The British began to fight back, which got worse and worse • Tension between the British, the French, and the Mi’kmaq got worse and worse
Turn to page 63, and read the “Voices” section • Assignment: complete questions 1-3 at the bottom of page 63
Hudson’s Bay • Radisson and Groseilliers heard about a giant “sea” to the north of them. They tried to convince the governor of New France to find it, but he didn’t want to • They took their plan to the British, who agreed to pay • They found the “sea,” which was really the Hudson Bay. It allowed easy access to the centre of Canada, and was full of furs
The English began spreading throughout Canada, and called the land “Rupert’s Land” after Prince Rupert • French fur traders became jealous. In 1686, Pierre Troyes led an attack on British forts along the bay • They took control of many British fur trading posts • When the Treaty of Utrecht was signed, all of the land was given back to the British
British Exploration 1. A man named Henry Kelsey travelled West to meet with First Nation groups to create a fur trade with them • He travelled as far west as Saskatchewan 2. Anthony Henday also travelled West, reaching Alberta • He tried to set up a trade system with the Siksika 3. Samuel Hearne, led by a Dene First Nation man named Matonabbee, travelled North. • He was the first European to travel to the Arctic Ocean
The Northwest Passage • Even though the New World was being settled, European countries still wanted to find a short route to Asia • Various explorers died trying to make their way through the Arctic Ocean when the ice thawed
The Pacific Coast • Explorers such as James Cook and George Vancouver tried to find an entrance to the Northwest Passage • They took sea otter furs to China, which were worth a lot of money there. • They made the first maps of the West Coast, showing that no passage existed so far south