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POLS 374 Foundations of Global Politics

POLS 374 Foundations of Global Politics

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POLS 374 Foundations of Global Politics

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  1. POLS 374 Foundations of Global Politics Globalization and Identity November 14, 2006

  2. Globalization and Identity • Previous chapter argued that the end of territorialism has meant the end of statism • This chapter argues that the end of territorialism has meant the end of ___________________? • Nationalism

  3. Globalization and Identity • What is nationalism? • A circumstance where people construct their being, belonging, and becoming first and foremost in terms of national affiliation • Another way to define nationalism: an ideology that holds that the nation-state is the fundamental, the most natural, and the most important unit for human social life

  4. Globalization and Identity • What is nationalism? • Patriotism, jingoism and chauvinism are all manifestations of nationalism—the zealous promotion of one’s “nation” over all others

  5. Globalization and Identity • A few things to know about nationalism • It’s a relatively new phenomenon • It’s an extraordinarily powerful phenomenon: peoplewillingly die for thesake of nationalism

  6. Globalization and Identity • Nationalism and Nationality • We need to make a clear distinction: just as the state is not dead with the end of territorialism, nationality is not dead with the end or demise of nationalism

  7. Globalization and Identity • What is a Nation? • A nation comprises a large population • A nation is distinguished as a form of collective identity by attachment to a specific territorial homeland • A nation defines itself through an emphasis of attributes that set it apart from other national groups • Nations are mutually constitutive

  8. Globalization and Identity • What is a Nation? The Importance of Criteria • One of the things that stands out in the criteria we discussed in that the concept of nationalism creates a sharp, concrete distinction between “insiders” and “outsiders,” between those who belong and those who do not

  9. Globalization and Identity • What is a Nation? The Importance of Criteria • A critical practical implication: Nationalism creates a clear distinction between those who really “matter” and those who do not; between those that we can legitimately “ignore”—or worse, legitimately kill, maim and torture—and those that we cannot

  10. Globalization and Identity • What is a Nation? The Importance of Criteria • Consider the ongoing conflict in Iraq: Iraqi citizens are “outsiders,” as such their deaths are legitimately excused as “collateral damage” • How many Iraqi citizens have died? • Click here to see one estimate • Click here to see figures from Iraq Body Count

  11. Globalization and Identity • What is a Nation? The Importance of Criteria • The distinction between “insiders” and “outsiders” was much more blatant (though not necessarily any more destructive) in years past • Consider the Philippine-American war, which took place at the turn of the 20th century …

  12. Globalization and Identity • The Philippine-American War: The American military was in the Philippines to quell an "insurrection," a rebellion by the native Filipinos opposing American occupation. They were not there to fight a people defending their homeland. This was the basic tenet taught to the American soldier sent to fight in the islands. • When hostilities started in 1899 and 3,000 Filipino corpses littered the streets of Manila, the Chicago Tribune, a journal close to the McKinley administration opined, "The slaughter at Manila was necessary, but not glorious. The entire American population justifies the conduct of its army at Manila because only by a crushing repulse of the Filipinos could our position be made secure. We are the trustees of civilization and peace throughout the islands."

  13. Globalization and Identity "Kill every one over ten." - Gen. Jacob H. Smith

  14. Globalization and Identity • The Decline of Nationalism • The logic of nationalism that made it permissible for an American general to publicly announce a policy of killing children is no longer sustainable • This tells us that nationalism has undergone a change, albeit not always an obvious one

  15. Globalization and Identity • The Decline of Nationalism • One important change: the emergence of a transterritorial identity related to “human-ness” • Individuals around the world now recognize accept that, at some level, we all share the same humanity

  16. Globalization and Identity • The Decline of Nationalism • Some Evidence • Growth of global relief campaigns and the concept of humanitarian assistance • Consider the tsunami relief effort or international aid that was sent to the US following Hurricane Katrina • Humanitarian intervention • Global peace movements • Promotion of “global public goods” • Establishment of human rights regime

  17. Globalization and Identity • The Decline of Nationalism • Other Key Points from Chapter • The growth of nonterritorial identities—and there growing importance—can be clearly seen in a number of key areas: Religion, Class, Race, Youth culture, Sexual orientation