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CS101 Introduction to Computing Lecture 4 Computer Systems. During the Second Lecture …. We talked about the evolution of computers

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during the second lecture
During the Second Lecture …
  • We talked about the evolution of computers
  • How initial computers were mechanical, and then came electro-mechanicals, then tube-based, and finally transistor based, and how the future belongs to quantum computers
  • We discussed how the size is drastically decreasing with time and how their capability is increasing year by year
today s goal
Today’s Goal
  • To learn to classifycomputers according to their capability and targeted applications
  • To find out about the essential building blocks that make up a modern computer
computer types according to capability
Computer Types According to Capability
  • Supercomputers
  • Mainframes
  • Servers
  • Desktops
  • Portables
supercomputers 1
Supercomputers (1)
  • State-of-the-art machines designed to perform calculations as fast as the current technology allows
  • Used to solve extremely complex and large-scale problems: weather prediction, simulation of atomic explosions; aircraft design; movie animation
  • Cost tens of millions of dollars
  • Unique in that unlike mainframes & personal computers, designed to focus all their resources and capabilities on a single task at a time
supercomputers 2
Supercomputers (2)
  • Early supercomputers used a single or a few processors working in parallel
  • Those processors were custom-built for the supercomputers, and were, therefore, very expensive
  • Modern supercomputers use the same processors that are used in desktop PCs. They, however, are designed to use 1000’s of them working together in parallel
why use man y not so powerful processors working in parallel
Why use many not-so-powerful processors working in parallel

?

Why not just design a single, really powerful processor

Post your answers on the CS101 message board

?

the champion asci white
The Champion: ASCI White
  • Most powerful computer as of February 2002
  • Capable of 12.3 trillion calculations/sec
    • 74,000 times faster than Cray 1 (1976)
    • 1,000 times faster than Deep Blue (1997)
  • Designed for complex 3-D simulations required for testing nuclear weapons
  • Powered by 8192 microprocessors
  • 6 TB of memory; 160 TB of storage capacity
mainframe computers 1
Mainframe Computers (1)
  • Also called “Enterprise Servers”
  • Designed for performing multiple, intensive tasks for multiple users simultaneously
  • Used by large businesses (e.g. banks, e-commerce sites), military, and industrial organizations
mainframe computers 2
Mainframe Computers (2)
  • Designed for very-high reliability
  • Can be serviced/upgraded while in operation
  • Generally consist of multiple processors, GB’s of memory, and TB’s of storage
  • Cost in millions of dollars
servers minicomputers 1
Servers/Minicomputers (1)
  • The name minicomputers used to define the class of computers that lies between personal computers and mainframes
  • Then very high-end desktop computers – called low-end or mid-range servers – took over the role that was previously played by minicomputers
servers minicomputers 2
Servers/Minicomputers (2)
  • Low-end and mid-range servers are used by small businesses and organizations as file-stores, to run e-mail systems and Web sites
  • Generally are more reliable than desktops, but not as solid as the mainframes
  • Generally consist of 2 or more processors, GB’s of memory, and TB’s of storage
  • Costs in hundreds of thousands of dollars
desktop computers 1
Desktop Computers (1)
  • Also called microcomputers
  • Low-end desktops are called PC’s and high-end ones “Workstations”
  • Generally consist of a single processor only, some times 2, along with MB’s of memory, and GB’s of storage
desktop computers 2
Desktop Computers (2)
  • PC’s are used for running productivity applications, Web surfing, messaging
  • Workstations for more demanding tasks like low-end 3-D simulations and other engineering & scientific apps
  • Are not as reliable and fault-tolerant as servers
  • Workstations cost a few thousand dollars; PC around a $1000
mobile computers 1
Mobile Computers (1)
  • Laptops, palmtops, and wearable computers are very capable computers but are light-weight and consume very little power
  • Laptops (also called notebook computers) generally weigh around 2kg, use special low-power processors, typically have 256MB memory, 40GB of storage, can work for more than 2 hours on battery
  • Their usage is similar to that of PCs
  • They cost in the range of $1500-2500
mobile computers 2
Mobile Computers (2)
  • Palmtops, also known as PDA’s - Personal Digital Assistants
  • Weigh less than a pound, have very low-power processors, KB’s of memory, MB’s of storage capacity
  • Can run for many hours on AA batteries
  • Used as an electronic version of a pocket diary. Also for Web surfing and e-mail or even as mobile phones
  • Palmtops cost $200-600
mobile computers 3
Mobile Computers (3)
  • Wearables are small in size, carried in a pocket, worn on the arm, waist, or head or elsewhere on the body
  • Capability similar to PDA’s, but more expensive
  • They are always ON, and always accessible. That is, the user can always enter and execute commands, even while walking around or doing other activities
  • Each soldier of the future will be fitted with one
ranking w r t installed number
Ranking w.r.t. installed number
  • PC’s
  • PDA’s
  • Workstations
  • Servers
  • Wearables (will take the top spot in future)
  • Mainframes
  • Supercomputers
slide20

Now that we have learnt about the various types of computers and about their typical applications, let’s move on to a new topicLet’s now find out about the essential components that are present in every type of computers

at the highest level two things are required for computing
At the highest level, two things are required for computing

Hardware: The physical equipment in a computing environment such as the computer and its peripheral devices (printers, speakers, etc.)

Software: The set of instructions that operates various parts of the hardware. Also termed as “computer program”

slide22

We’ll have a lot to say about software during the duration of this courseHowever, for the rest of today’s discussion, let’s concentrate on hardware

all computers have the following essential hardware components
All computers have the following essential hardware components:

Input – the component through which a userinstructs a computer about what to do

Processor – the engine that processes the instructions given by the user

Memory – where the processor stores information that is required during its computations

Storage – where information that is required to be used much later is stored

Output – the component that communicates the results of a computation to the user

slide26

Keyboard

Mouse

Control

Unit

Integer

Unit

Compact

Disk

Floating

Point

Unit

Cache

Memory

System Bus

Hard

Disk

Processor

Memory

Bus

Memory

Printer

Monitor

input devices
Input Devices
  • Mouse
  • Keyboard
  • Joystick
  • Camera
  • Microphone
  • Scanner
slide29
Port

The connection point at which we connect input and output devices to a computer

many types of ports
Many Types of Ports
  • Parallel
  • Serial
  • SCSI
  • USB
  • Firewire
processor
Processor
  • Pentium
  • Celeron
  • Athlon
  • PowerPC
  • StrongARM (PDA)
  • Crusoe (Laptops)
  • SPARC (Workstations)
memory storage
Memory/Storage
  • RAM
  • Punch cards
  • ROM
  • Hard disk
  • Floppy disk
  • Tape
  • CD
  • DVD
classifying memory storage
Classifying Memory/Storage
  • Electronic (RAM, ROM)

magnetic (HD, FD, Tape),optical (CD, DVD)

  • Volatile (RAM), non-volatile (HD)
  • Direct access (RAM, HD), serial access (Tape)
  • Read/write (HD, RAM), read-only (CD)
output devices
Output Devices

Printer

Plotter

Speakers

Monitor

modulator

modulator

modem

demodulator

m

o

d

e

m

modem is an example of a device that acts both as an input as well as an output device
Modem is an example of a device that acts both as an input as well as an output device
  • Can you think of any other such dual-purpose devices?
    • Network cared
    • Touch screens
slide39

What have we learnt today?What are the various types of computers with respect to their size, capability, applications (FIVE TYPES)The five essential components of any computer are input devices, processor, memory, storage and output devices

next time we ll find out about
Next time we’ll find out about
  • What are the major building blocks of a modern personal computer?
  • How those building blocks are put together to form a PC?