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Navigation in Smaller Spaces
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  1. Navigation in Smaller Spaces Steve Smyth – MobileGIS Ltd, Cork, Ireland steve@mobilegis.com COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Smaller Spaces

  2. Summary 1. Personal Navigation 2. Large Spaces 3. Smaller Spaces 4. Evolution from Large to Smaller 5. Site and Building Directories 6. Role of Standards COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces

  3. Personal Navigation COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces • Visiting things • Component tasks • Selecting a destination thing • Planning • Wayfinding • Guidance • Understanding local environment • Mediated by mobile device

  4. Navigation Before Now COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces • Limited mostly to driving in large spaces • Consequence of largeness • Restricted business model • Roads afford driving • Other features and their affordances and lack of affordances are mostly ignored • [Games, military, flight, and industrial simulations]

  5. Spaces in which Things Find Themselves COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces • Space of large things • Inside (mostly doesn’t happen) • Outside (mostly everything) • Approximately 2D (complete visualisation) • Space of small things • Inside (surrounds) • Outside (up to half visible) • Inherently 3D • Artificial caves (buildings, tunnels) important

  6. Large Spaces COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces • Perfect knowledge navigation • Single source models • Complete • Consistent • Human cognition easy • Path knowledge – route/directions/simulation • Network knowledge – subway map • Area knowledge - map

  7. A Large Space COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces

  8. Smaller Spaces COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces • Inherently three dimensional • Interior and exteriors matter • Exteriors are understandable as a whole • Shell of structure hulls – “built caves” • “Slide show” of visualizations • Interiors are sequences of chambers • Connected by portals • Shell of chamber hull • Even simple buildings cannot be visualised

  9. Detail

  10. New Factors in Smaller Spaces COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces • Perfect knowledge model breaks down • Too much detail • Too many sources • Too much change • No consistency • Incompleteness • Closed world – ignore incompleteness • Open world – acknowledge incompleteness

  11. Contrasts with Large Spaces COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces • In large space, only roads count and no driving happens anywhere else • Approximation, even for cars • Sometimes off-road, trails and paths considered • In smaller spaces many surfaces support walking, cycling, climbing, boating, and other activities under different circumstances • Barriers and false affordances become important • Most features are areal not linear

  12. Evolution from Large to Smaller COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces Can we apply what we know about large spaces to smaller spaces? Should we give up hope for perfect knowledge? If so, the paradigm changes to what?

  13. [Suggested] Principles COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces Pay attention to human cognition Incorporate mobile device sensors Offload “hard” conversion, mining, rendering, image processing, line-of-sight remotely as SaaS Agree to work with partial and contradictory information from multiple sources Build on a self-sustaining web of consumed and created resources ($$$, content, apps, services)

  14. Practice COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces • What is an example of a commercially realizable navigation service for smaller spaces? • Consider what happens now when a person visits a smaller space: • Physical site plans • Building directories • Aim to deliver a complete area understanding of the space.

  15. Site and Building Directories COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces Person finds directory for a smaller space at the beginning of a visit. Device holds a representation of a view that the human can remember from a single view. Owner of the space has a motivation to create of pay for creation of model. Publication mechanism required. Tools for model creation required.

  16. Montelibretti Example COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces Fire training centre operated by Italian Interior Ministry at Montelibretti, north of Rome Visiting firemen come for training Need shared reference for training exercises CNVVF Directory

  17. Ecology COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces • Owner of space • Funds model creation • Receives security or advertising benefit

  18. Ecology COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces • App developer • Uses web services for mining, conversion, rendering, path planning, image processing • Receives $$$ or glory • End user • Uses app to gain knowledge of site • May pay for app • May pay for goods or services provided by site owner

  19. Ecology COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces • Service provider • Does computationally hard things • Mining models and CAD data for directories • Rendering • Image processing • Line-of-sight computations • Path computations • Receives $$$ from owners and/or heavy commercial users on freemium model

  20. Ecology COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces • Tool provider • Enables model creation and maintenance • CAD and design applications • 3D modellers • Receives $$$ from (some) modellers

  21. Role of Standards COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces • Content • Syntax • Semantics • Content indexing and publication • Modelling tools

  22. Recap 1. Personal Navigation 2. Large Spaces 3. Smaller Spaces 4. Evolution from Large to Smaller 5. Site and Building Directories 6. Role of Standards COM.Geo 2011 - Open Geospatial Consortium IoT Workshop – Nav in Small Spaces