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Electric Circuits. Series and Parallel Circuits. Circuit Diagrams. An electric circuit is a complete path through which charge can flow Circuit diagrams use symbols to represent parts of a circuit Circuit diagrams show a source of electrical energy, and devices run by electrical energy.

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electric circuits

Electric Circuits

Series and Parallel Circuits

circuit diagrams
Circuit Diagrams
  • An electric circuit is a complete path through which charge can flow
  • Circuit diagrams use symbols to represent parts of a circuit
  • Circuit diagrams show a source of electrical energy, and devices run by electrical energy
circuit diagrams1
Circuit Diagrams
  • A circuit diagram will show one or more paths for the charge to flow
  • Switches are where the circuit can be open
  • An open circuit occurs if a switch is open then the circuit is not a complete loop and the current stops
  • A closed circuit is when the switch is closed and the circuit is complete
series circuit
Series Circuit
  • A series circuit has only one path that the charge can flow
  • If one element in a series circuit stops working then the whole circuit will not work
  • Each bulb in a series circuit adds resistance and makes all of the bulbs dimmer
parallel circuit
Parallel Circuit
  • A parallel circuit is when two or more paths through which the charge can flow
  • If one element stops working then the charge can flow along another path
  • This is common in houses
power and energy
Power and Energy
  • The rate at which electrical energy is converted to another form of energy is electric power
  • The unit is joule per second or watt (W)
  • Power is often in kilowatts (kW)
  • Power = current x voltage or P = I x V
  • P(watts) = I (amps) x V (volts)
example
Example
  • An electric oven is connected to a 240 volt line and it uses 34 amps of current. What is the power used by the oven?
  • Current = I = 34 ampsVoltage = V = 240 voltsPower = I x V
  • Power = 34 amps x 240 voltsPower = 8160 watts
electrical safety
Electrical Safety
  • There are several things needed to make a house safe such as correct wiring, fuses, circuit breakers, insulation, and grounded plugs
  • In the US most houses have an average of 120 volts and each device increases the current
  • If too many devices are used it may cause a fire
home safety
Home Safety
  • A fuse prevents current overload in a circuit
  • A wire in the fuse will melt if there is too much current
  • This is how we “blow a fuse”
  • Most houses now use circuit breakers
  • A circuit breaker is a switch that will open when a current is too high
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