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NOISE FROM TRANSPORTATIONS IN CITIES ACTION PLANS AND BARRIER DESIGN Sergio Luzzi University of Florence Vie En.Ro.Se . Ingegneria srl. 60-64. 55-59. 65-69. 70-74. >75. URBAN AREAS

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slide1

NOISE FROM TRANSPORTATIONS IN CITIES

ACTION PLANS AND BARRIER DESIGN

Sergio Luzzi

University of Florence

Vie En.Ro.Se. Ingegneriasrl

slide2

60-64

55-59

65-69

70-74

>75

URBAN AREAS

Cities occupy only 2% of the world’s surface but consume up to 75% of natural resources. More than 70% of European citizens live in urban areas today, and urban dwellers are expected to increase to 80% of the total population by 2020. The "cost" of one extremely annoyed person has been estimated to be approximately 1.600 € per year. The annoyance caused by road traffic noise, corresponds to a cost of more than 800 million €.

Continuous night-time road traffic noise affects 20 % of world inhabitants at levels above 55 dB(A), the threshold at which World Health Organisation considers sleep may be disturbed.

slide3
Noise exposure in EU (2011)

Within agglomerations

slide4

Noise reduction can be at source, along the propagation, at the receiver.

  • In the EU, there is a great trend to consider noise reduction at source at first. The EU has financed numerous research projects to reduce noise at source (e.g.: development of new asphalts, new tyres, electric vehicles, railway wheel and rail vibration dampers, new brake blocks of freight trains, high bypass ratio aircraft engines). (e.g.: STAIRRS, PERSUADE, RATIN, QCITY, SILENCE, X-NOISE).
  • Noise reduction can be in the propagation path, by means of traditional noise barriers. Research projects on improved efficient noise barriers were financed. (e.g.: QUIESST)
  • The EU supports and has financed research projects on the management of noise in urban areas by means of:
    • LIFE - (e.g.: development of best management of noise in the city, recommendations for local authorities, quiet areas within cities HUSH, QUADMAP, NADIA, SMILE).
    • FP7 (e.g.: development of quiet areas and techniques for quiet areas within cities, CITYHUSH).
    • Exceptionally by direct service contract (e.g.: EffNOISE).
  • Noise reduction at the receiver is also possible, but NOT at the focus of EU measures.
slide6

What has happened with noise in EU Legislation?

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 …

END entered into force

MS national transposition

END review process

ENDRM: relational database to structure the information

2) C-NOSSOS: Common Assessment Methods

2nd set:

noise strategic maps

4th set:

all noise sources

5th set:

all noise strategic maps

6th set:

all noise action plans

1st set:

noise

sources

3rd set:

noise action plans

Data delivered

slide7

ACTION PLANS FOR NOISE REDUCTION AND CONTROL

Directive 2002/49/EC (Environmental Noise Directive)

  • ANNEX V
  • MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR ACTION PLANS
  • referred to in Article 8
  • 1. An action plan must at least include the following elements:
  • a description of the agglomeration, the major roads, the major railways or major airports and other noise sources taken into account,
  • a summary of the results of the noise mapping,
  • an evaluation of the estimated number of people exposed to noise, identification of problems and situations that need to be improved,
  • any noise-reduction measures already in force and any projects in preparation,
  • actions which the competent authorities intend to take in the next five years, including any measures to preserve quiet areas,
  • long-term strategy,
  • financial information (if available): budgets, cost-effectiveness assessment, cost-benefit assessment,
  • provisions envisaged for evaluating the implementation and the results of the action plan.
  • ANNEX V
  • MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR ACTION PLANS
  • referred to in Article 8
  • 2. The actions which the competent authorities intend to take in the fields within their competence may for example include:
  • - traffic planning,
  • land-use planning,
  • technical measures at noise sources,
  • - selection of quieter sources,
  • - reduction of sound transmission,
  • - regulatory or economic measures or incentives.
  • 3. Each action plan should contain estimates in terms of the reduction of the number of people affected (annoyed, sleep disturbed, or other).
  • Article 8
  • Action plans
  • Member States shall ensure that no later than 18 July 2008 the competent authorities have drawn up action plans designed to manage, within their territories, noise issues and effects, including noise reduction if necessary. The measures within the plans are at the discretion of the competent authorities, but should notably address priorities which may be identified by the exceeding of any relevant limit value or by other criteria chosen by the Member States and apply in particular to the most important areas as established by strategic noise mapping.
  • Member States shall ensure that, no later than 18 July 2013, the competent authorities have drawn up action plans notably to address priorities which may be identified by the exceeding of any relevant limit value or by other criteria chosen by the Member States for the agglomerations and for the major roads as well as the major railways within their territories.
  • Article 1
  • Objectives
  • The aim of this Directive shall be to define a common approach intended to avoid, prevent or reduce on a prioritised basis the harmful effects, including annoyance, due to exposure to environmental noise. To that end the following actions shall be implemented progressively:
  • (a) the determination of exposure to environmental noise, through noise mapping, by methods of assessment common to the Member States;
  • (b) ensuring that information on environmental noise and its effects is made available to the public;
  • (c) adoption of action plans by the Member States, based upon noise-mapping results, with a view to preventing and reducing environmental noise where necessary and particularly where exposure levels can induce harmful effects on human health and to preserving environmental noise quality where it is good.
slide8

ACTION PLANS

Directive 2002/49/EC

Aims

The aim of this Directive shall be …(should have been…)

… to define acommon approachintended to avoid, prevent or reduceon a prioritised basis theharmful effects, including annoyance, due to exposure toenvironmental noise.

Requirements

a) Determination of exposure to environmental noise, through noise mapping, by methods of assessment common to the Member States;

b) Information on environmental noise and its effects has to be made available to the public;

c)Action plans toprevent and reduce environmental noise and to preserve environmental noise quality where it is good.

d)Public has to be consulted about action plans. Results of participation have to be taken into account in the process of action planning.

e) Noise mapping + action planning data has to be sent to the Commission

slide9

Area / source to be investigated

Strategic noise maps

Action plans

ACTION PLANS

Agglomerations

>250,000 inhabitants

30 June 2007

18 July 2008

>100,000 inhabitants

30 June 2012

18 July 2013

Major roads

>6,000,000 vehicle passages per year

30 June 2007

18 July 2008

>3,000,000 vehicle passages per year

30 June 2012

18 July 2013

Major railways

>60,000 train passages per year

30 June 2007

18 July 2008

>30,000 train passages per year

30 June 2012

18 July 2013

Major airports

>50,000 movements per year

30 June 2007

18 July 2008

Directive 2002/49/EC

Timetable

END requirements have to be fulfilled acc. to the following timetable:

slide10

ACTION PLANS

INPUT:

noise maps

INPUT: sensitive receivers

INPUT: squares

INPUT: play-grounds

INPUT: public gardens

INPUT: school gardens

ACOUSTIC

MODEL

INPUT: parks

INPUT:

road, railways, airports

SPL

facade points

QUIET AREAS DETECTION PROCEDURE

HOTSPOT DETECTION

PROCEDURE

QUIET AREAS

HOTSPOTS

INDEX OF CRITICITY DEFINITION

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF NOISE

Leq,D ≤ QUALITY REF. LEVEL

QUIET AREAS

TO BE

PRESERVED

QUIET AREAS

TO BE

REDESIGNED

no

yes

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOUNDSCAPES

ACTION PLANNING

STRATEGIC

ACTION PLAN

(Actions)

HANDBOOK

OF GENERAL SOLUTIONS

SOLUTIONS DESIGNING

OPERATIVE PLANS

(Solutions)

MONITORING

Urban agglomeration action planning procedure

slide11

ACTION PLANS

INPUT:

noise maps

INPUT: sensitive receivers

INPUT: squares

INPUT: play-grounds

INPUT: public gardens

INPUT: school gardens

ACOUSTIC

MODEL

INPUT: parks

INPUT:

road, railways, airports

SPL

facade points

QUIET AREAS DETECTION PROCEDURE

HOTSPOT DETECTION

PROCEDURE

QUIET AREAS

HOTSPOTS

INDEX OF CRITICITY DEFINITION

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF NOISE

Leq,D ≤ QUALITY REF. LEVEL

QUIET AREAS

TO BE

PRESERVED

QUIET AREAS

TO BE

REDESIGNED

no

yes

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOUNDSCAPES

ACTION PLANNING

STRATEGIC

ACTION PLAN

(Actions)

HANDBOOK

OF GENERAL SOLUTIONS

SOLUTIONS DESIGNING

OPERATIVE PLANS

(Solutions)

MONITORING

slide12

ACTION PLANS

Actions for Noise Reduction

Actions can be direct or strategic.

DIRECT ACTIONS

noise barriers, tunnels, low-noise paving, windows, etc.

STRATEGIC ACTIONS

public transport improvement, walking and cycling roads, speed reduction, road travel restrictions and parking by fees.

Local regulation can assist these objectives.

slide13

ACTION PLANS

Typologies of Noise Barrier

Reinforced terrein

Transparent materials

Vegetation

“Cotto” Bricks

Wooden panel

Concrete

Metallic Panel

HANDBOOK OF GENERAL SOLUTIONS

Technical Record for Noise Barrier

Barrier efficency depends on:

Position: distance from source;

Height: source must be not “visible” from all receivers

Lunghezza: lateral diffraction effects must be considered

Materials (quantity and density): reduce the amount of energy that impacts the receiver

slide15

SOUNDSCAPES FOR QUIET AREAS - FLORENCE

Quiet areas in Florence

Hotspots

In

Florence

slide16

application of soundscapes based methodology

Binaurali Earphones

Microtrack Recorder

Sound Meter

Instumentation for soundwalks

5

slide17

SOUNDSCAPES FOR QUIET AREAS - FLORENCE

Fortezza Gardens

TERRITORIAL PLACEMENT

TRADE SHOW AREA

FOUNTAIN

TRAFFIC LIGHT INTERSECTION

FILIPPO STROZZI AVENUE

slide18

SOUNDSCAPES FOR QUIET AREAS - FLORENCE

Fortezza Gardens

LOCATION OF ACOUSTICALLY FUNCTIONAL AREAS

area 4

area 1

area 3

area 2

slide19

SOUNDSCAPES FOR QUIET AREAS - FLORENCE

Fortezza Gardens

NOISE MEASUREMENTS

slide20

SOUNDSCAPES FOR QUIET AREAS - FLORENCE

area 1

area 2

area 3

70

horn

horn

60

voices

twittering

voices

horn

50

voices

twittering

voices

Notes area 1- ground noise: fountain and traffic

Notes area 2 – ground noise: traffic

Fortezza Gardens

SOUNDWALKS

slide21

M. Shafer:

“The tuning of the world”

Vancouver Press, 1977

Perception

Menzel, Haufe, Fastl:

“Colour-influences on loudness judgements” Proceedings of ICA 2010 , Sydney

slide23

STANDARD PROCEDURE

for acoustic design of railway noise barriers

slide24

ACQUISITION OF TERRITORIAL DATA

3D vector cartography, topographic surveys, maps and characterization of the rail line, database of the receivers

ACOUSTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF SOURCES

overview of trains, noise and velocity measurements

data processing

CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION

OF CALCULATION MODEL

CALIBRATION

via comparison with measured data

no

INPUT DATA CORRECTION

STANDARD PROCEDURE

for acoustic design of

railway noise barriers

yes

RESULTS

noise at receivers’

facades ante operam

INSERTION OF BARRIER IN THE MODEL AND SIMULATIONS

NOISE LIMITS TO RECEIVERS

EXCEEDED

?

RESULTS

noise at receivers’

facades post operam

no

yes

INPUT DATA CORRECTION

BARRIER DESIGN

choice of typology and calculation of acoustic and structural dimensions

slide25

BARRIERS FOR RAILWAY NOISE acoustical

  • The barrier is composed of:
  • supporting basement inclined of 12° towards the railroad, with medium sound absorbing surface (height 2.00 meters over the track level),
  • superior heavily absorbing layer realized with 0.50 m modules reaching the maximum permitted height of 7.50 m, according to the acoustic design.

new RFI standard

slide28

BARRIERS FOR RAILWAY NOISE structural

  • supporting basement in cast reinforced concrete into external quarter-deck
  • steel vertical rod fixed to the foundation plinth
  • foundation on single plinths
  • subfoundation of injected micro piles
slide29

BARRIERS FOR RAILWAY NOISE structural

  • pre-fabricated supporting basement in reinforced concrete
  • steel vertical rod fixed to the foundation plinth
  • foundation on single plinths
  • subfoundation of injected micro piles
slide30

BARRIERS FOR RAILWAY NOISE architecture

Florence barriers structural standards

Vertical views of a barrier inserted along an existing railroad – interference with electric pole

slide31

BARRIERS FOR RAILWAY NOISE architecture

Florence barriers structural standards

Portal

slide32

PROBLEMS IN APPLICATION

PURSUIT OF SOLUTIONS

  • Recent and homogeneous cartographic data
  • Topographical Plotting
  • 3. Measurement Points
  • 4. Measurements Campaigns
  • 5. Railway Stations
  • 6. Overlapping transport noise
  • 7. Sources Characterization
  • 8. Trains Classification
  • 9. Freight Trains Characterization
  • 10. Compatible and sustainable barriers
  • 11. Optimal and sub-optimal barriers heights
  • 12. Increasing heights algorithm
  • 13. Composition of railway noise.
  • 14. Secondary sources contribution
  • 15. Harmonization
slide33

PROBLEMS IN APPLICATION

  • Some examples of operational difficulties:
  • interferences with signal structures (elevation)
  • signal visibility: to improve the signal visibility is possible to remove the overhang or moving back the barrier
slide34

PROBLEMS IN APPLICATION

  • Some examples of operational difficulties:
  • interferences with signal & power line structures (foundation)
slide35

PROBLEMS IN APPLICATION

  • Some examples of operational difficulties:
  • interferences with power line structures (elevation)
slide36

CONCLUSIONS

Action Plans are designed to manage, within their territories, noise issues and effects, including noise reduction if necessary, and shall aim to protect quiet areas against an increase in noise.

Railway Noise is one of the most important source of annoyance to be reduced in the interest of safeguarding the environment.

Noise barriers are at the moment the most widespread acoustical mitigation intervention typology used for the railway infrastructure.

  • The reasons are:
  • Simplicity of execution technologies;
  • Relevant acoustical effectiveness;
  • Durability.
  • Models of noise barrier design have to be :
  • stressed by applying them on critical scenarios,
  • adapted to national and local standards and political choices,
  • improved with rules of compatibility and sustainability.
slide37

Thank you!

sergio.luzzi@unifi.it

sergio.luzzi@vienrose.it