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Look at the list of viruses on page 13 & describe the significance, both positive and negative, of viruses. Viruses. Not all are harmful. Phages are viruses that infect bacteria Many are used to make vaccines

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  1. Look at the list of viruses on page 13 & describe the significance, both positive and negative, of viruses Viruses

  2. Not all are harmful • Phages are viruses that infect bacteria • Many are used to make vaccines • Ancient virus was thought to make the potent sting in a wasp’s venom (Vergano, 2009) • Genetic engineering of our own DNA to cure disease

  3. Overview • Not classified as living • Viruses do not consume food or make food • Oldest known is papillomavirus - Hundreds of millions of years ago, a relative of this virus made dinosaurs sprout warts.  Highfield, Roger. "Is This the Oldest Human Virus? - Telegraph." Telegraph.co.uk - Telegraph Online, Daily Telegraph and Sunday Telegraph - Telegraph. 18 July 2006. Web. 12 Nov. 2011. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/3346456/Is-this-the-oldest-human-virus.html>.

  4. Virus Anatomy • Main Parts: • Capsid – to protect the genome • DNA/RNA – genetic info

  5. Viruses & Shapes Marburg Virons Ebola Virus Swine Flu Virus Stoatitis Virus

  6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TWmRDQTaZTE (cartoon) Reproduction • On the cell surface of all cells are sensors called receptors with ‘locks’ that fit the ‘key’ of different proteins a cell needs. When a matching receptor and protein lock together, the cell pulls them both inside. • A virus uses camouflage to trick the cell. Its capsid look like proteins the cell needs. When the virus receptor binds to the cell receptor, the cell thinks the virus is a protein, and pulls it in • The virus tricks the cell into making more viruses by inserting it’s own DNA/RNA – the directions for making more viruses – into the cell’s own DNA (Virus) http://www.npr.org/blogs/krulwich/2011/06/01/114075029/flu-attack-how-a-virus-invades-your-body?sc=nl&cc=es-20091129

  7. Herpes Simplex Virus What is it? Symptoms • Transmission from skin to skin contact, oral, vaginal, and anal sex. • The easiest infection route: when there is an open, active sore. • But you can get herpes even when your partner is not having symptoms or showing any open sores. • if you're sexually active, latex condoms reduce the risk of transmission but are not 100% effective. • Never have sex with someone who has genital sores.  • No cure, • only medical treatment. • HSV 1 usually causes cold sores in and around the mouth • HSV 2 is most often found in the genital area producing itching and burning, painful urination, and blisters. • 500,000 to 1 million new cases each year.

  8. HEPATITIS A, B, & C What is it? Symptoms • Hepatitis is caused by 3 different viruses • Vaccinations protect against Hepatitis A & B.  • Types B & C mostly transmitted through body fluids: mouth/mouth, mouth/genital or other sexual contact, contaminated needles in drug use, tattooing or ear piercing.  • Always wash hands after using toilet. • Use a condom every time you have sexual activity. Don't share needles, razor blades, or toothbrushes with an infected person. • Caught early, Acute Hepatitis B is treated with bed rest and fluids to prevent dehydration; eventually will go away but can take several months. • Chronic Hepatitis B develops over time and is not curable but there are treatments that can stop the virus from getting worse. • Acute Hepatitis C may go away on its own. Chronic Hepatitis C may be treated with antiviral medication to stop the virus from getting worse. • may appear with a month after contact.  In some cases:  muscle ache, fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, headache, dizziness.  In other cases:  dark urine, light stool color, yellow eyes and skin (jaundice), tenderness in liver area.  • Types B and C are the most dangerous – may cause inflammation of the liver that can lead to liver failure, liver cancer and even death.

  9. HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus What is it? Symptoms • weakens the immune system, making it harder to fight off infections. • Everyone can get HIV. Most people get the virus by having sex with an infected person, sharing needles with an infected person, or from childbirth. • HIV is not transmitted by saliva or by toilet seats. • You can't get it from sharing towels or shaking hands. • Currently there is no vaccine to prevent HIV or a treatment that cures HIV. • Used in combination with one another, powerful antiretroviral medications can slow down the virus and the progression between HIV infection and the development of AIDS. • Early symptoms can feel like a flu that lasts longer than usual. • During this period, people are very contagious with the virus. • it's possible to have HIV for years and not develop or show any signs of the disease. • The only way to know if you have HIV is to get an HIV test.

  10. HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus

  11. HPV: Human Papilloma Virus What is it? Symptoms • Up to 15 percent of sexually active teenage girls are infected with HPV. • The majority of those infected have a strain that has been linked to cervical cancer. • Most people who become infected with HPV do not even know they have it. • HPV is passed on through sexual contact, most often during vaginal and anal sex. • HPV may also be passed on during oral sex. • HPV is so common that at least 50% of sexually active men and women get it at some point in their lives. • Vaccines can protect males and females against some of the most common types of HPV. These vaccines are given in three shots. The vaccines are most effective when given before a person's first sexual contact, and possible exposure to HPV. • There are more than 40 HPV types that can infect the genital areas, mouth, and throat of males and females. • The types of HPV that can cause genital warts are not the same as the types that can cause cancer. There is no way to know which people who get HPV will go on to develop cancer. • condoms may lower the risk of HPV but HPV can infect areas that are not covered by a condom - so condoms may not fully protect against HPV.

  12. Resources • Vergano, Dan. "Study: Ancient Virus Gives Wasps Their Sting - USATODAY.com." Study: Ancient Virus Gives Wasps Their Sting - USATODAY.com. USA Today, 15 Feb. 2009. Web. 23 Oct. 2012. <http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/tech/science/columnist/vergano/2009-02-15-wasp-sting_N.htm>. • "Virus." Ask A Biologist. ASU School of Life Sciences, n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2012. <http://askabiologist.asu.edu/virus>.

  13. How to grow microbes on agar • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6-chXVgu8Z0 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1VkB8NzrEBs

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