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1. Section 4.5Limits at Infinity

2. As x approaches infinity f(x)  ? as x gets larger and larger f(x)  ? as x gets larger and larger in the negative direction f (x)  Fun Fact: A student, who is an excellent pattern-observer, was asked to find the following limit. He quickly answered 8 | x x→ ∞ 7

3. Limit at infinity If as x approaches infinity (or negative infinity), f (x) approaches L, then the limit as x approaches a of f (x) is L. f (x)  L | x x→ ∞

4. Definition L f means that the value of f (x) can be made as close to L as we like by taking xsufficiently large.

5. L f Horizontal Asymptote The line y = L is called a horizontal asymptote of the curve y = f(x) if either or

6. Asymptotes Horizontal Asymptote: y = 0 Vertical Asymptote: x = -2

7. Examples • Since • f(x) = e x has a horizontal asymptote at y = 0 • Polynomial Functions have no horizontal asymptotes. • Find all horizontal asymptotes of g(x) = arctan(x)

8. Finding limits at infinity If n is a positive number, then • To find limits at infinity, we multiply the expression by • where n is the highest power in the denominator. • Then use the above property to simplify.

9. Examples Find the limits.

10. Examples Find the limit. Find all horizontal asymptotes for the function