What we’ll cover for this lecture topic: What affects overall processing speed? More about physical components. !! KEEP UP with textbook readings !!! The Boot Process.
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What affects overall processing speed?
More about physical components.
!! KEEP UP with textbook readings !!!
The Boot Process.
If RAM is empty when I turn on the computer, how does the CPU know how to start up and how to load the Operating System? What else happens at boot-up?
Remember RAM’s cousin, ROM?
Excellent text coverage! Read pages 44 - 47.Computer architecture, part 2
Op-code Operands …
Data file 1
Data file 1
Data file 2
Within the same processor class, AND if all else is equal, then an 800 MHz processor is almost twice as fast as a 400 MHz processor.
Number of bits the CPU can store &manipulateas a unit during a single (basic) machine cycle.
Early PCs: “8 bit processor”; then 16 bit (1st IBM PC)
Today’s PCs: 32 bit; latest: 64 bit designs for servers and high-end PCs)
IF all else is equal,a 32-bit processor will be twice as fast as a 16-bit processor.
Bus widthMore is better (more carried at once)
Today’s apps are memory hogs!
Amount of main memory available to the processor, and its access speed, affects OVERALL performance!
Update of old adage:“You Can never be too rich, too thin, or have TOO MUCH RAM” ;-)
Hard disks, floppy disks, CD-ROMs, tape, ...
Logical organization:(between main memory and CPU)
(can be “on-chip” and/or off-chip)
Fastest to slowest access; smallest to largest capacity
Memory Cache (Level1, Level2)
Auxiliary (secondary mem.) storage
a hierarchy exists within this category as well : Disk faster than tape; hard disk faster than Floppy disk; etc.)
We won’t discuss here….JUST FOR CULTURE
Many functions are measured in terms of how quickly they can be performed during some portion of a second; or, how many can be done in 1 second
VLSI: level of integration and miniaturization.
Packing it in: less distance for signals to travel = faster.
Electric pulses travel through a wire ~ 1 foot/nanosecond
Newer generation microprocessors (high end:
.18-micron wide transistors,
>42 million transistors/chip.
Pins: connectors that
allow communications with other chips. Plug into circuit board socket.
Expansion slot/card or board/port:
NOTE: I will not expect you to memorize all the types of expansion slots, cables, connectors, and ports! Just understand what each is for (a slot, cable, a port….)
Digital Electronics; and Input and Output devices
GOOD textbook coverage:
--Chapter 2 pages 62 thru 64.
--Chap 2 pages 88 thru 96
So we WON’T COVER HERE….
Dell Dimension 4700
Processor: Intel Pentium 4 with 2.8 GHz processor
Memory: 256 MB (to 2 GB) SDRAM at 400 MHz
Storage: Ultra Hard drives up to 200 GB
Drive bay options: Dual optical drive bays with your choice of DVD-ROM, CD-RW/DVD or CD-RW/DVD-RW combo
Ports: 6 USB 2.0 ports (2 front & 4 back), one serial port and one parallel port.
Front: digital camera, MP3 player, …
Back: printer, scanner…
Monitors: Up to 21” (19.8” viewable) CRT displays and 19” Flat Panel (19” viewable) displays
Video graphics: …… and Ultra 8X AGP graphics available
Sound: Premium sound cards and brand-name speakers…
Software: pre-loaded with Microsoft Windows XP operating system. Plus you can choose from Corel Works or Microsoft Office XP professional or small bus ed.
Processor Cache: 1 MB (SRAM)
Modem/Network: 56 KB/s or 100Mbit/s
Service and support options….