20th Century Constitutional law. 1914 1945. Fall of the empires Development of the totalitarian regimes (socialist, fascist, nazi). The aftermath of WWI. President Wilson and the national state Germany Weimar republic Distrust of democracy Austria
1914 1945 Fall of the empires Development of the totalitarian regimes (socialist, fascist, nazi)
The aftermath of WWI President Wilson and the national state Germany Weimar republic Distrust of democracy Austria The fall of the Habsburg Empire Harassedminorities Europe: dynastickingdoms national states
The totalitarianstates:Russia Socialism The Bolshevik revolution of 1917 Totalitarianregime Symbioticrelationshipbetweenstate and law Law (and constitution) as a tool to control the masses
Fascism The economiccrisis The entity of the nation Apposeparliamentarism Authoritarianleadership Corporations
The totalitarianstates:Germany Nazism Hitler State Chancellor, 1933 Weimar constitution Enablingact Racialdistincsion of the national state Apposeparliamentarism Authoritarianleadership
PostwarEuropeCold War (1947-1991)
Nationalism Fall of the Eastern bloc and Yugoslavia new countries Scotland independent? 2014 referendum.
France Social and political crisis New constitution 1946 New constitution 1958. Power transferred to the president. Algeria independent 1962. End of French colonialism.
Bundesrepublik Deutschland BRD formed in 1949. Constitution from 1949 relates to Weimar constitution. Mechanisms that would prevent totalitarian ideas. American legal thinking: Separation of Powers (dates back to Montesquieu) Bundesverfassungsgericht – Supreme court of the US Federation of Bundesländer.
The Welfare state Large public sector Military, courts, schools, hospitals and other public bureaus. Administrative law
European Union: history European Coal and Steel Community Euratom European Economic Community European Union Treatyof Maastricht Treatyof Amsterdam Treatyof Nice Treatyof Lisbon
European Union: goals Article3 TEU Free movement Internalmarket
European Union: currentdiscussions Supremacy Accordingto the CJEU Accordingto national courts PoliticalUnion Hobbes and Locke
The Council of Europe (May 5, 1949) Europe’s first political institution and now its largest Guardian of human rights, democracy and rule of law European Court of Human Rights: the conscience of the continent 47 Member States, except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City Situated on the border of France and Germany Not part of the European Union (28 Members States)
European Political Cooperation: The Parliamentary Assembly 47 delegations of MPs from national parliaments It monitors whether the Council’s conventions are being respected It produces reports based on fact finding missions around Europe Recommendations are voted upon and sent to the Committee of Ministers
The Council of Europe – Global Cooperation European Union Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) The European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare (EDQM)