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Observe RIP operations in details: Request and Response packet structure,split horizon, periodical flooding routing info.

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rip split horizon rip tutorial with pictures 2 www visualland net

RIP Split HorizonRIP tutorialwith pictures

Watch animation to learn networking.

Observe RIP operations in details: Request and Response packet structure,split horizon, periodical flooding routing info.

This pictured tutorial takes screenshots fromRIP Split Horizon Animation.

OK to republish this slide. Please use hyperlink to point to its source.

rip animations
RIP animations

RIP basic It shows how to configure RIP at two routers and the process of synchronizing routing information with Request, Response.

Split Horizon Observe RIP operations in details: Request and Response packet structure, split horizon, periodical flooding routing info.

Link Failover It animates the steps of finding new routes upon a link down event.

Router poison RIP routers floods Response every 30 seconds. If a router has not heard from a neighbor for 180 seconds, it thinks the nieghbor is unreachble. It floods a Response to announce (with route metric 16.) Neighbors propagate this Response to spread out through the RIP network. This is called route poisoning.

Equal cost - route poison When receivingg a route poison, a router does not re-flood route poison if it has other paths to reach the unreachable router.

Garbage Collection After 180 second of silence from a neighbor, the router declares the neighbor is unreachable and floods route poison. However, this obsolete route stays in RIP database for another 60 seconds (Garbage Collection Timer). When this timer expires, RIP removes the router from RIP datase.

Pinghole Congestion RIP uses hop count to calculate path cost, not bandwidth. If a router has two equal cost paths to reach a destination, it load balances traffic. However, if one path has a slower link, it is congested and becomes a bottleneck. This is called RIP pinhole congestion.



overview rip details animation link
Overview: RIP detailsAnimation link

Goal: Animate RIP packet structure, periodical flooding of routing info, and split horizon, no VLSM.

Topology: R1, R2, R3 are RIP roouters connected linearly. R2 and R3 have started a while. R1 is just started..

Steps: 1) R1 started RIP. Flood Request to ask routing info from neighbors. Flood Response to tell its routes.

2) When receiving Request from R1, R2 returns a Response to R1.

3) When receiving Response from R1, R2 learns a new route (from R1) and floods a Response.

4) R3 receives R2's Response and learned R1's route.

init r2 r3 have started rip
Init: R2, R3 have started RIP

In this simulaton, R2 and R3 have started RIP and synchronzied their routing tables.

Note: Classful. In R2's routing table, (R,, E0/1, 1) describes R3's subnet But the network address is shown as This is because RIP does not support VLSM. It uses classful IP address only.

init configure rip at r1
Init: Configure RIP at R1

Now configure R1 to run RIP.

See RIP configuration commands in R1's Command Line window.

r1 floods request
R1 floods Request

After start, R1 wants to know neighbors routing information. It floods a Request. Click Request to see its content.

- Command=1. Packet type is Request. Version=1. RIP version 1.

- Address Family Identifier=0, IP Address= Metric=16

(See more details in FAQ)

r2 sends response split horizon
R2: Sends Response(Split Horizon )

Upon receiving Request from R1, R2 sends a Response back to R1 to tell R1 about routes R2 has.

- Response contains 2 routes: a local route connected to R3, a remote route learned from R3.

- RIP does not support VLSM (classless IP). R3's remote route is shown as

- Response does not include the local route, E0/0 due to split horizon rule. This route is derived from

R2's E0/0 interface at which R2 receives Request from R1. (See more in FAQ)

r1 update routing table
R1: update routing table

When R1 receives Response, it adds two new routes to its routing table.

r1 flood response
R1: flood Response

R1's routing table is cahnged, it floods Response to its neighbors to annouce the good news.

- R1's Response does not include,, due to split horizon rule.

- Route is shown as (RIP 1 does not support classless IP addressing.

r2 flood response
R2: flood Response

After receiving Response from R1, R2 does:

- Add new route (, E0/0) to its routing table.

- Flood a Response to announce this new route it just discovered. R2 won't send Repsonse from E0/0 due to

split horizon rule ( is received from E0/0)

r3 update routing table
R3: update routing table

After receiving Response from R2, R3 adds the new route (, E0/0, 2) to its routing table.

Now R1, R2, R3's routing tables are synchronized.

We can see that it takes two hops for R3 to reach at R1. At R3, the cost for route is 2 in R3's routing table.

  • What are RIP packets?
  • What are the key parameters used in RIP packets?
  • What is split horizon?

( answers in the Comments box )

what is vlab visualland net
What is
  • VLAB: Virtual Lab
    • Theory: Visualize key points of network protocols to help beginners grasp the basic ideas quickly.
    • Lab: Visualize network activities with packets and router states captured from network simulators (dynamips, packet tracer, and ns2.
    • Interactively control animation: packet headers, protocol state tables.
  • Vlab usage
    • Self learning, teaching aids, lab book.