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  1. Announcements • Documents are available by going to the library…Faculty Website • Reading Assignment for weekend: Pages 2-22,90-95, 106-130 • Question pools

  2. Review • What is Deviant behavior? • How did society deal with deviant behavior? • Every criminological theory implies a _______ ? • The most important evaluation criterion for theory is_______?

  3. What is a Theory? An explanation

  4. What is a Theory? An explanation

  5. What is a Theory? A statement of why or how things are related to each other

  6. A Crime Theory Explains: • Why or how certain things are related to criminal behavior

  7. Crime Theory Criminal Behavior For example: Unemployment

  8. Some Theories Assume….. Crime is a part of human nature

  9. Some Theories Explain….. How human nature is related to crime

  10. Other Crime Theories Focus on….. } • Biological Factors • Psychological Factors • Sociological Factors • Economic Factors

  11. Why is Criminological Theory Important

  12. Most Criminal Justice.. • Practices are based on theory • Policies are logical products of theory

  13. Reasons for Studying Criminological Theory Be aware of theoretical problems that could undermine criminal justice policies

  14. Classical Criminologists’ Theory of Crime

  15. Classical TheoryUtilitarianism

  16. Classical Theory-Deterrence Free Will Pleasure vs Pain

  17. Classical Theory If a person believes the legal penalty threatens more pain than the gain, they will not commit the crime

  18. Classical Theory • Their calculation is based on • Own experience with punishment • The likelihood they will get caught • Their knowledge of the law • Their awareness of what punishment has been given in the past

  19. Cesare Beccaria • All criminals should receive identical punishments

  20. Cesare Beccaria • Punishment for crimes should be determined in advance

  21. Cesare Beccaria • The penalty should be severe enough to overcome the pleasures

  22. Cesare Beccaria • Certainty and Celerity • “The more immediately after the commission of a crime a punishment is inflicted, the more just and useful it will be”

  23. Cesare Beccaria • Certainty and Celerity • “The more immediately after the commission of a crime a punishment is inflicted, the more just and useful it will be”

  24. Jeremy Bentham • Agreed with the Deterrence Theory Doctrine • “…for each crime a punishment whose pains would outweigh any possible pleasure to be gained from them and by assuring the certain and swift administration of justice, rational men, deterred by the realization that a net loss will inevitably result from the criminal act, will refrain from breaking the law.”

  25. Classical School • If the “Punishment most fit the crime” does that mean that “pain for gain” is the same for everyone? • Does this mean that legislature should have an exact scale of crimes with an exact scale of punishments?

  26. Specific Deterrence • If I know that when I was caught the first time, I was severely punished. I do not want that again.

  27. General Deterrence • The punishment for that crime is rather severe. I would not commit that crime because I do not want that.

  28. Deterrence Doctrine The philosophical foundation for western criminal law

  29. Modern Adaptations • Blumstein (1978) • “…longer sentences, if not a deterrent, will keep an inmate in longer” • President Clinton ”Violent Crime Control Act and Law Enforcement Act of 1994”

  30. Group Project • There have been several different methods proposed to reduce drug abuse in the United States. • Which do you think will be more successful: • Minimum and mandatory sentencing or • An increase in spending on rehabilitation plans? • List three reasons in your answer