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Journal Response #3. Unit 2.2 Lesson Prompt for the Formation of Government : - A little brainstorming … what would happen to a basketball team if every player concentrated on setting individual records rather than working as a team to win games?

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Journal Response #3


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    1. Journal Response #3 Unit 2.2 Lesson Prompt for the Formation of Government: - A little brainstorming… what would happen to a basketball team if every player concentrated on setting individual records rather than working as a team to win games? - Now, let’s apply that same concept to our government… what would happen if each state pursued its own interests rather than those of the nation as a whole? This brainstorming entry was completed on your Ch. 5.1 Worksheet: Experimenting with Confederation”. Be prepared to share your answers in class!

    2. Unit 2 Part 2 (Ch. 5) Notes: Foundations of Government U.S. History & The Constitution Mr. Weathers

    3. Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator Standard USHC-1:The student will demonstrate an understanding of the conflicts between regional and national interest in the development of democracy in the United States. USHC-1.4: Analyze how dissatisfactions with the government under the Articles of Confederation were addressed with the writing of the Constitution of 1787, including the debates and compromises reached at the Philadelphia Convention and the ratification of the Constitution.

    4. Ch. 5.1 – Experimenting with Confederation (pgs. 132-137) - Americans created a government under the Articles of Confederation (AOC). - Protected hard fought rights. - AOC’s downfall = weak central government to meet the nation’s needs. - Weak government = result of experiences that led to the Am. Revolution.

    5. Ch. 5.1 – Experimenting with Confederation (pgs. 132-137) - Americans fought to maintain colonial assemblies’ rights. - Believed sovereignty rested in state governments. - Continental Congress = model for the AOC government (Confederation government). - Authority rested in states, not central, governments.

    6. Ch. 5.1 – Experimenting with Confederation (pgs. 132-137) Successes of the Confederation Government (see 5.1 Worksheet) - Large & small states conflicted over western land claims. - Resolved = states gave up land claims to the Confederation government = created national domain. - Government established land distribution method = Land Ordinances. - Set precedent for the creation of new states (Northwest Ordinance).

    7. Ch. 5.1 – Experimenting with Confederation (pgs. 132-137) Successes Cont. - Northwest Ordinances = slavery illegal in the old Northwest Territory. (nation’s 1st effort). - Land Ordinance & Northwest Ordinance were the first acts of the 1st Congress under the new 1787 Constitution. - System for equal state creation = achievement of the Confederation government.

    8. Ch. 5.1 – Experimenting with Confederation (pgs. 132-137) Successes Cont. - Confederation government = effective during Revolution when states had a common cause. - Allowed states to write constitutions & passed laws that met their needs.

    9. Ch. 5.1 – Experimenting with Confederation (pgs. 132-137) Weaknesses of the Confederation Government: - AOC government negotiated the Treaty of Paris. - Problems between states rose soon after the war’s end in 1781. - Americans found AOC government too weak for the new nation.

    10. Ch. 5.1 – Experimenting with Confederation (pgs. 132-137) Weaknesses of the Confederation Government Cont.: 1.) Economic Problems: Interruption of trade with Britain (primary trade partner) = economic depression & challenges to the AOC gov’t. 2.) Government didn’t have the ability to pay an army; elite feared it might not be able to respond to crisis. 3.) Government could not solve conflicts between states over interstate trade, currency, or boundaries. - Power to do so was not recognized by the states - No national judicial branch to resolve conflicts.

    11. Ch. 5.1 – Experimenting with Confederation (pgs. 132-137) Problems Cont. 4.) Diplomatic Problems: gov’t couldn’t force the British to follow the Treaty of Paris = remove British from U.S. land. 5.) Couldn’t persuade British gov’t to allow the continuation of trade. 6.) Couldn’t get U.S. access to the sea through Spanish New Orleans. States attempted to negotiate with foreign powers separately. 7.) Couldn’t levy taxes (only request funds from the states. - Many states refused to support the national gov’t with funds = gov’t couldn’t raise an army that would give the government diplomatic clout.

    12. Ch. 5.1 – Experimenting with Confederation (pgs. 132-137) Problems Cont. 8.) Lack of power to solve national problems = states refused to acknowledge central government’s authority. - 2/3 majority needed by states to pass legislation. 9.) Noexecutive branch to carry out the will of the national congress or a judiciary to resolve disputes. 10.) Authority of the government derived from the states = Confederation Congress delegates were selected by state legislatures.

    13. Daily “Bell Ringer” Warm Up Bell Ringer #10 (26 Sept) 10.) The Articles of Confederation (AOC) proved ineffective as a national body of laws for which of the following reasons? a.) It gave too much power to the Congress without providing for a commander of the nation’s armed forces. b.) It imposed federal taxes that led to a rebellion of farmers in New England. c.) It did not give the federal government enough power to effectively lead. d.) If prevented individual states from having their own constitutions. CORRECT ANSWER: C

    14. Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator Standard USHC-1:The student will demonstrate an understanding of the conflicts between regional and national interest in the development of democracy in the United States. USHC-1.4: Analyze how dissatisfactions with the government under the Articles of Confederation were addressed with the writing of the Constitution of 1787, including the debates and compromises reached at the Philadelphia Convention and the ratification of the Constitution.

    15. Strengths & Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Small Group Case Studies Every Group Member Receives: • Incident Report form (one per person – everyone fills one out!) • group specific case study on challenges of the Articles of Confederation period. Procedures - Your group will be given a case study. • Review the case study & work together to complete the incident report based on your findings have each group present its incident report. • Each group will explain & present their findings & display their Incident report form to the class.

    16. Strengths & Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Case Study #1 – Settling the National Debt

    17. Strengths & Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Case Study #2 – The Pirates of North Africa

    18. Strengths & Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Case Study #3 – Soldiers in the Time of Peace

    19. Strengths & Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Case Study #4 – Western Lands

    20. Ch. 5.2 – Drafting the Constitution (pgs. 140-144) Shay’s Rebellion: -Term (definition): - Uprising of debt-ridden farmers protesting increased state taxes. - When: - 1787 - Where: - Massachusetts - Significance: - Spread panic of further uprisings throughout the nation. Caused people to realize the need for a stronger national government.

    21. Ch. 5.2 – Drafting the Constitution (pgs. 140-144) Constitutional Convention: - Term (definition): - Meeting of 55 states delegates to discuss the need to strengthen the central government. - When: - 1787 - Where: - Pennsylvania State House (Independence Hall) - Significance: - Delegates from the states began the construction of a new government framework to address the shortfalls of the Articles of Confederation.

    22. Ch. 5.2 – Drafting the Constitution (pgs. 140-144) The Convention’s Issues Congress couldn’t enact & collect taxes; only request them. Congress had right to levy taxes on individuals; money could help support an army.

    23. Ch. 5.2 – Drafting the Constitution (pgs. 140-144) The Convention’s Issues New national government given exclusive power to control interstate commerce; control of currency. Congress couldn’t regulate interstate or foreign trade; no standard currency.

    24. Ch. 5.2 – Drafting the Constitution (pgs. 140-144) The Convention’s Issues National government given exclusive right to make treaties with foreign powers. Individual states negotiated treaties with foreign powers.

    25. Ch. 5.2 – Drafting the Constitution (pgs. 140-144) The Conventions Issues 2 houses (bicameral); upper house (senate) = 2 votes per state); lower house (House of Representatives) = based on population. 1 house (unicameral); 1 vote per state regardless of population.

    26. Ch. 5.2 – Drafting the Constitution (pgs. 140-144) The Convention’s Issues 50% +1 of both houses plus signature of president. 9/13 states required

    27. Ch. 5.2 – Drafting the Constitution (pgs. 140-144) The Convention’s Issues 2/3 of both houses of Congress plus 3/4 of state legislatures or national convention. 13/13 states required.

    28. Ch. 5.2 – Drafting the Constitution (pgs. 140-144) The Convention’s Issues Executive branch headed by a president who chose a Cabinet & has checks on power of judicial & legislative branches. No executive with power to enforce Congress’ laws. President merely presided over Congress.

    29. Ch. 5.2 – Drafting the Constitution (pgs. 140-144) The Convention’s Issues No court system to settle legal disputes. Court system created to resolve issues between citizens, states.

    30. Ch. 5.2 – Drafting the Constitution (pgs. 140-144) The Convention’s Issues Constitution = supreme law of the land; strong central government. 13 states believed in a weak central government; no national unity.

    31. Ch. 5.2 – Drafting the Constitution (pgs. 140-144) Representation in Congress (Problem & Solution) Bicameral (two house) legislature: lower & upper houses. Unicameral (one house) legislature. 4.) The New Jersey Plan proposed that congressional representation be based on: Other small states agreed. Population of each state. One vote per state. 5.) How did Roger Sherman’s Great Compromise resolve this conflict? Proposed a bicameral Congress, giving each state equal representation in the Senate and representation based of population in the House of Representatives.

    32. Ch. 5.2 – Drafting the Constitution (pgs. 140-144) Representation in Congress Cont. (Problem & Solution) People, other than slaves. People, including slaves. Proposed that three-fifths of a state’s slave population be counted for representation. .

    33. Ch. 5.2 – Drafting the Constitution (pgs. 140-144) - How did the members of the Constitutional Convention help ease the southern delegates’ fears of federal control of the slave trade? - Federal government wouldn’t attempt to limit the international slave trade for at least 20 years; Made illegal in 1808.

    34. Ch. 5.2 – Drafting the Constitution (pgs. 140-144) - The three branches of government: - Legislative: - Executive: - Judicial: makes the laws enforces the laws interprets the laws and the Constitution Checks & Balances: - Provisions of the U.S. Constitution that prevent any branch from dominating the other two branches.

    35. Ch. 5.2 – Drafting the Constitution (pgs. 140-144) Checks & Balances in Action

    36. Ch. 5.2 – Drafting the Constitution (pgs. 140-144) - Electoral College: group selected by the states to elect the president & vice president; each state’s number of electors is equal to the number of its senators & representatives in Congress.

    37. Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator Standard USHC-1:The student will demonstrate an understanding of the conflicts between regional and national interest in the development of democracy in the United States. USHC-1.4: Analyze how dissatisfactions with the government under the Articles of Confederation were addressed with the writing of the Constitution of 1787, including the debates and compromises reached at the Philadelphia Convention and the ratification of the Constitution. USHC-1.5: Explain how the fundamental principle of limited government is protected by the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, including democracy, republicanism, federalism, the separation of powers, the system of checks and balances, and individual rights.

    38. Ch. 5.3 –Ratifying the Constitution (pgs. 145-149) - Concept of Limited Government: government must be controlled so that it cannot infringe upon the rights of the people. - Under the Constitution, national government’s power is limited. - Fundamental Principle of Democracy: government derives its power from the consentof the governed.

    39. Ch. 5.3 –Ratifying the Constitution (pgs. 145-149) Philadelphia Convention (Constitutional Convention): May-Sept 1787 - Declared overall authority to govern granted by “We, the people” (voters) to the national government, not to the states. - Acted on principle of federalism = limits national government’s power by only delegating it some powers. - Other powers: reserved to the states, held concurrently by the states & by the nation, while others reside with the people.

    40. Ch. 5.3 –Ratifying the Constitution Cont. (pgs. 145-149) Philadelphia Convention (Constitutional Convention) (Cont.): - Gave House of Representatives the right to initiate tax measures. - Determined directly election of representatives by the voters of their states. - Buffered the impact of the popular will on the election of the president. (Electoral College). - Devised system for indirect election of Senators. - Supreme Court Justices = nominated (president) & confirmed (Senate).

    41. Ch. 5.3 –Ratifying the Constitution (pgs. 145-149) - Ratification: Constitution sent to special state conventions for ratification; required 9 of 13 states’ votes. - Ratification = compromise between a stronger national gov’t & those who feared it.

    42. Ch. 5.3 –Ratifying the Constitution (pgs. 145-149) - Two groups debated ratification: a.) Federalists: Pro-Constitution; represented the coastal elites. - Favored strong national government & loose interpretation of the Constitution. - James Madison, Alexander Hamilton & John Jay campaigned for ratification; wrote essays known as The Federalist Papers. - Written to influence New York’s ratifying convention. - For a central government that protected people’s rights against local prejudices, but not too strong to threaten their liberties.

    43. Ch. 5.3 – Ratifying the Constitution (pgs. 145-149) b.) Anti-Federalists: anti-Constitution; backcountry farmers who feared the power that the elites would have in a strong national government located far away from the influence of the people. - Favored a weak national government & strict interpretation of the Constitution. - believed state governments would be more responsive to people’s needs. - Constitution met minimum ratification requirements on June 21, 1788. Debating ratification in the Virginia House of Burgesses

    44. Ch. 5.3 – Ratifying the Constitution (pgs. 145-149)

    45. Ch. 5.3 – Ratifying the Constitution (pgs. 145-149) Bill of Rights: antifederalists concerned about the rights of the individual against an abusive government. - Several states ratified only on the condition that a bill of rights (first ten amendments) would be added. - ______ = Right to freedom of speech, religion, assembly & the press. - ______ = Right to bear arms. - ______ = Unreasonable searches & seizures. - ______ = Protection against unfair trials. - ______ = Reserved powers to the state (& people). The Bill of Rights was ratified on Dec, 15, 1791. 1st 2nd 4th 6th 10th

    46. Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator Standard USHC-1:The student will demonstrate an understanding of the conflicts between regional and national interest in the development of democracy in the United States. USHC-1.6: Analyze the development of the two-party system during the presidency of George Washington, including controversies over domestic and foreign policies and the regional interests of the Democratic-Republicans and the Federalists. USHC-1.7: Summarize the expansion of the power of the national government as a result of Supreme Court decisions under Chief Justice John Marshall, such as the establishment of judicial review in Marbury v. Madison and the impact of political party affiliation on the Court.

    47. Chapter 6.1- 6.3 Small Group Work Group Topics: Group I- Alexander Hamilton v Thomas Jefferson (T-Chart) - Role of government, economic vision, & view towards the Constitution. - Hamilton’s economic plan & role for a Bank of the United States. Group 2- 2 Emerging Political Parties (who were they) (Venn Diagram) - Political beliefs / attitudes - Views towards the French Revolution Group 3- The Whiskey Rebellion (significance of) (Cause & Effect Chart) - role of the federal government. Group 4- Alien & Sedition Acts & VA & KY Resolutions (5 W’s Chart) Group 5 - Power of the Supreme Court (Circle Diagram/Web) - Judiciary Act of 1789 - Chief Justice John Marshall & His Court (type of court, political alignment, etc.) - Marbury vs. Madison (impact of) All Group Charts/Diagrams Must Have Accompanying Visuals!

    48. 6.1 - Washington Leads the New Gov’t (pgs. 182-187) Judiciary Act of 1789 - Created a judicial structure that has remained essentially intact. - Created the supreme court, circuit courts, & district courts. - Law allowed state court decisions to be appealed to a federal court when constitutional issues were raised. Washington Shapes the Executive - Created the positions of - Secretary of State : T. Jefferson - Secretary of Treasury: A. Hamilton - Secretary of War: Henry Knox - They would be known as the cabinet.

    49. 6.1 - Washington Leads the New Gov’t (pgs. 182-187) Hamilton & Jefferson in Conflict - Hamilton = strong central government - Jefferson = strong state government - Hamilton = strong commerce & industry - Jefferson = strong society of farmers - Strict vs. Loose interpretation of Constitution Hamilton’s Economic Plan - Hamilton wanted to manage the country’s debt & est. a national bank system. - National debt was at a couple million & the money needed to be paid to foreign countries & U.S. citizens - Wanted national govt. to absorb state debt to strengthen the faith in the new govt. T. Jefferson A. Hamilton