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Working paper No . EFV-01-06 (GRPE Informal Group on EFV, 1st meeting, 6 June 2008). Possible approach to a concept for an Environmentally Friendly Vehicle (EFV) (Brainstorm). GRPE – 1 st informal meeting EFV WG (Geneva, 6 June 2008). Gerben Passier (TNO). Background.

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possible approach to a concept for an environmentally friendly vehicle efv brainstorm
Working paper No. EFV-01-06

(GRPE Informal Group on EFV,

1st meeting, 6 June 2008)

Possible approach to a concept for an Environmentally Friendly Vehicle (EFV)

(Brainstorm)

GRPE – 1st informal meeting EFV WG (Geneva, 6 June 2008)

Gerben Passier (TNO)

TNO Science & Industry

background
Background
  • Many approaches, ideas, technologies to solve
      • Climate change
      • Energy efficiency
  • How can policy makers decide what to support?
  • Problem: how to compare objectively impact on environment?

TNO Science & Industry

objectives
Objectives

Review the feasibility of EFV concept: Globally harmonised method for evaluating environmentatlly friendliness of a vehicle

  • Propose scope and parameters for EFV concept
  • Proposal plan for literature study

Focus on energy efficiency and CO2 emissions based on well-to-wheel approach

Feasibility question: aim also to set a standard and certify (like EEV for HD)?

TNO Science & Industry

scope and parameters effici nt clean smart
Biofuels 2e gen.

Gas

Hydrogen

5-10%

Eco-Driving

Travel information

Environmental traffic management

5~10%

5~10%

10-20%

10~15%

Advanced engines

Transmission

Hybride  electric

Weight reduction

Tyres

Aerodynamics

Air Conditioning

10~20%

Scope and parameters: Efficiënt, Clean, Smart
  • Focus on Efficient vehicle technology

Alternative

fuels

Vehicle

technology

ICT in mobility

/ behaviour

Powertrain

Other

TNO Science & Industry

scope and parameters
Scope and parameters
  • Focus on passenger cars first?
  • Pollutant emissions not considered (but minimum standard Euro6 or stricter)?
  • Consider real world?
  • Technology neutral (!)

TNO Science & Industry

relation energy efficiency and co 2
Relation Energy efficiency and CO2

CO2 emissions

  • Need to include both: EFV = EE + CO2

low

Hydrogen?

Biofuels?

Ideal?

PHEV?

Electric?

ICE (G & D) ?

high

Energy

Efficiency

low

high

TNO Science & Industry

for assessment of efv co 2 energy the whole chain is important well to wheel analysis
For assessment of EFV (CO2 & energy), the whole chain is important (Well-to-wheel analysis)
  • Production fuel (WTT) and use in vehicle (TTW) now
  • Development, production & disposal of the vehicle in the future

EFV = WTT + TTW

TNO Science & Industry

combine co2 and energy efficiency 1
Combine CO2 and Energy efficiency (1)
  • EFV = EE (WTT) + EE (TTW) + CO2 (WTT) + CO2 (TTW)
  • Powertrain efficiency
  • Fuel type
  • Fuel production

Assume:

Depend mainly on fuel type

Little variation per fuel type

??

Difficult to compare vehicles with different type of fuel (eg electric with gasoline)

  • Seperate :

EE (TTW) car manufacturers & CO2 (WTT) fuel industry

TNO Science & Industry

combine co 2 and energy efficiency 2
Combine CO2 and Energy efficiency (2)
  • To weight importance of CO2 versus Energy efficiency:
  • Normalise! Standard based on:
        • Average
        • Minimum
        • Best in class

CO2 [g/kWh] EE [%]

  • EFV = (WTT) + (TTW)

standard CO2 [g/kWh] standard EE [%]

TNO Science & Industry

seperate fuel vehicle characteristics
Seperate fuel & vehicle characteristics

Fuel

(carbon content)

  • Further investigation of definitions is needed
  • Importance of default values

better

H2?

Elec.?

E85

E10

E0

Flexibility for choice of technology

Vehicle

(Energy efficiency)

current

worse

EFV1

EFV2 treshhold

worse

better

TNO Science & Industry

literature study technology and regulations
Literature study (technology and regulations)

State of the art of EFV technology

  • Biofuels
  • Plug-in hybrids
  • Electric
  • Hydrogen

Successful (worldwide) concept & regulation

  • Euro norms
  • PC CO2
  • Frontrunner; EEV
  • Procurement
  • Fiscal measures

TNO Science & Industry

slide12
Thank you !

12

TNO Science & Industry

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