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The Supporting Facility. Creating the Right Environment. Learning Objectives. Discuss the impact of the “servicescape” on the behavior of customers and employees. Describe the critical facility design features. Draw a process flow diagram.

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The supporting facility l.jpg

The Supporting Facility

Creating the Right Environment


Learning objectives l.jpg
Learning Objectives

  • Discuss the impact of the “servicescape” on the behavior of customers and employees.

  • Describe the critical facility design features.

  • Draw a process flow diagram.

  • Identify the bottleneck operation in a product layout and rebalance for increased capacity.

  • Use operations sequence analysis to minimize flow-distance in a process layout.

  • Recommend facility design features to remove anxiety of disorientation.


Servicescapes l.jpg
Servicescapes

Designing Physical Surroundings to Affect Employee and Customer Behavior

  • Ambient Conditions: background characteristics such as noise level, music, lighting, temperature, and scent.

  • Spatial Layout and Functionality: reception area, circulation paths of employees and customers, and focal points.

  • Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts: selection, orientation, location, and size of objects.



Facility design considerations l.jpg
Facility Design Considerations

  • Nature and Objectives of Service Organization

  • Land Availability and Space Requirements

  • Flexibility

  • Security

  • Aesthetic Factors

  • The Community and Environment


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Process Analysis Terminology

  • Cycle Time is the average time between completions of successive units.

  • Bottleneck is the factor that limits production usually the slowest operation.

  • Capacity is a measure of output per unit time when fully busy.

  • Capacity Utilization is a measure of how much output is actually achieved.

  • Throughput Time is the time to complete a process from time of arrival to time of exit.


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Process Analysis Terminology (cont.)

  • Rush Order Flow Time is the time to go through the system without any queue time.

  • Direct Labor Content is the actual amount of work time consumed.

  • Total Direct Labor Content is the sum of all the operations times.

  • Direct Labor Utilization is a measure of the percentage of time that workers are actually contributing value to the service.


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Process Flow Diagram of Mortgage Services

Property Survey

CT=90 min.

Yes

Final Approval

CT=15 min.

Mortgage

Applications

Completed

Applications

ApprovedMortgages

Credit Report

CT=45 min.

Title Search

CT=30 min.

No

Unapproved Mortgages


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Product Layout Work Allocation Problem

Automobile Driver’s License Office

Review Payment Violations Eye Test Photograph Issue

In Out

2

120

30

4

90

40

1

240

15

3

60

60

5

180

20

6

120

30

Activity

Number(s)

Capacity

per hour

Cycle Time

in seconds


Automobile driver s license office improved layout l.jpg
Automobile Driver’s License Office (Improved Layout)

1,4

65

55

3

60

60

  • In

Out

2

120

30

5

180

20

6

120

30

1,4

65

55

3

60

60

In


Process layout relative location problem l.jpg
Process LayoutRelative Location Problem

  • Ocean World Theme Park Daily Flows

A B C D E F A B C D E F

A

7

20

0

5

6

15

30

0

15

6

B

8

6

10

0

2

12

40

10

8

Net

flow

C

10

6

15

7

8

20

8

8

D

0

30

5

10

3

30

6

E

10

10

1

20

6

10

F

0

6

0

3

4

Flow matrix Triangularized matrix

Description of attractions: A=killer whale, B=sea lions, C=dolphins, D=water skiing,

E=aquarium, F=water rides.


Ocean world theme park proposed layout l.jpg
Ocean World Theme Park (Proposed Layout)

(a) Initial layout (b) Move C close to A

Pair Flow distances Pair Flow distances

AC 30 * 2 = 60 CD 20 * 2 =40

AF 6 * 2 = 12 CF 8 * 2 =16

DC 20 * 2 = 40 DF 6 * 2 = 12

DF 6 * 2 = 12 AF 6 * 2 = 12

Total 124 CE 8 * 2 = 16

Total 96

(c ) Exchange A and C (d) Exchange B and E and move F

Pair Flow distances Pair Flow distances

AE 15 * 2 = 30 AB 15 * 2 =30

CF 8 * 2 = 16 AD 0 * 2 = 0

AF 6 * 2 = 12 FB 8 * 2 = 16

AD 0 * 2 = 0 FD 6 * 2 = 12

DF 6 * 2 = 12 Total 58

Total 70

C

A

B

C

A

B

D

E

F

D

E

F

A

A

F

C

B

C

E

D

E

F

D

B


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Environmental Orientation Considerations

  • Need for spatial cues to orient visitors

  • Formula facilities draw on previous experience

  • Entrance atrium allows visitors to gain a quick orientation and observe others for behavioral cues

  • Orientation aids and signage such as “You Are Here” maps reduce anxiety


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Topics for Discussion

  • Compare the attention to aesthetics in waiting rooms that you have visited. How did the different environments affect your mood?

  • Give an example of a servicescape that supports the service concept and another that detracts. Explain the success or failure in terms of the servicescape dimensions


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Topics for Discussion (cont.)

  • Select a service and discuss how the design and layout of the facility meets the five factors of nature and objectives of the organization.

  • For Example 8.3, the Ocean World theme park, make an argument for not locating popular attractions next to each other.

  • The CRAAFT program is an example of a heuristic programming approach to problem solving. Why might CRAFT not find the optimal solution to a layout problem?


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Interactive Exercise

The class divides into small groups. One-half of the groups produce examples based on work experience with supportive servicescapes in terms of job satisfaction and productivity. The other one-half of the groups provide examples of poor servicescapes in terms of job satisfaction and productivity.


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