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Evaluative Design of e-Government Projects: a Public Value Perspective. Mike Grimsley Anthony Meehan Kushaan Sen Gupta. Avoiding Exclusion.

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evaluative design of e government projects a public value perspective

Evaluative Design of e-Government Projects: a Public Value Perspective

Mike Grimsley

Anthony Meehan

Kushaan Sen Gupta

AMCIS 2006

avoiding exclusion
Avoiding Exclusion
  • “Those who are left outside the development of information and communication technology are often the same people…who most need the welfare state’s services in any case. This is why special attention should also be paid to the needs of these people when developing a human information society.”
  • “The level of trust in an organisation affects levels of use and engagement with services. Some [people] avoid contact with services they do not trust unless it is absolutely essential. This can have a direct impact on how well services meet the wider community's needs.”

Osmo Pekonen and Lea Pulkkinen, Report to Finish Parliament, 2002

MORI, Trust in Public Institutions: A Report for the UK Audit Commission 2003

AMCIS 2006

slide3

political, economic & social institutions

vertical trust

Braithwaite & Levy, 1998;

Grimsley, Meehan et al, 2003

horizontal trust

community – family, friends, neighbours

Community Trust

“Trust relations are an expression of a community’s capacity to co-operate to achieve a better quality of life than would otherwise be available if its members acted merely as individuals.”

AMCIS 2006

ict mediation of trust

political, economic & social institutions

vertical trust

Braithwaite & Levy, 1998;

Grimsley, Meehan et al, 2003

horizontal trust

community – family, friends, neighbours

ICT mediation of Trust?

ICT

Poorly designed/managed e-government will damage the relationship between citizen and public service provider…

…and may have much wider implications for community well-being.

AMCIS 2006

initial conceptual framework
Initial Conceptual Framework

Trust &

Satisfaction

after:

Moore, 1995;

PM’s Strategy Unit, Creating Public Value, 2002

experience

experience

Services

Outcomes

“normatively compelling collective purposes”

contribute to

AMCIS 2006

developing the conceptual framework drivers of satisfaction trust

the extent to which people feel able to influence

influence:

the extent to which people feel a sense of personal control in life

personal control:

how well informed people feel

information:

Developing the Conceptual Framework: Drivers of Satisfaction & Trust

AMCIS 2006

well informedness
well-informedness

horizontal trust

vertical trust

AMCIS 2006

slide8

personal control

horizontal trust

vertical trust

AMCIS 2006

slide9

influence

horizontal trust

vertical trust

AMCIS 2006

extended public value model

Satisfaction

Trust

Extended Public Value Model

Positive Correlation

Reinforcing

Well-informedness

Personal control

Influence

Experience

Experience

Services

Outcomes

Contribute to

AMCIS 2006

some lessons issues 1
Some Lessons/Issues (1)
  • Customer/client/citizen relates to whole process – need for seamless integration of all system elements, and in ways that support diversity and avoid exclusion.
  • Well-informedness is promoted by:
    • personalised proactive communication;
    • consistency/lack of contradiction;
    • and reinforced by trusted 3rd party mediation.
  • Personal control is promoted by:
    • flexibility (multiple paths to the same end);
    • clarity of where the initiative resides.
  • Sense of influence is promoted by:
    • timeliness of context sensitive communication/feedback.

AMCIS 2006

some lessons issues 2
Some Lessons/Issues (2)
  • It is possible to maintain trust (even if the desired outcome is very difficult to attain) by taking a holistic view of clients needs and proactively supporting the client in recognising and addressing these needs.
  • Introduction of e-government raises client and citizen expectations and it is these raised expectations that must be met. This is particularly challenging for developers and managers of e-government systems as the introduction of the system itself raises benchmark by which it will be judged.

AMCIS 2006

information
Information

AMCIS 2006

slide18

Control

AMCIS 2006

slide19

Influence

AMCIS 2006

satisfaction
Satisfaction

MORI (PM’s PIU, Cabinet Office), 2001

AMCIS 2006

the hysteresis of trust

Trust

- ve

+ ve

Experience

The Hysteresis of Trust

when trust is lost, there is rarely a quick and easy way to rebuild the relationship.

AMCIS 2006

exclusion

Alienation  exclusion

Acting in

the

World

voting?

Exclusion

Confidence

Anxiety  exclusion

Trust

mental health?

fear of crime?

Note: Confidence and Trust are not linearly additive

after Luhmann, 2001

AMCIS 2006

references
References
  • Green. G., Grimsley, M., Suokas A., et al: Social Capital, Health and Economy in South Yorkshire Coalfield Communities. CRESR, Sheffield Hallam University, UK
  • Green G., Grimsley, M. and Stafford, B., (2001) Capital Accounting for Neighbourhood Sustainability, CRESR, Sheffield Hallam University, UK.
  • Green, G., Grimsley, M. and Stafford, B. (2005) The Dynamics of Neighbourhood Sustainability, Joseph Rowntree Foundation: York Publishing Services. http://www.jrf.org.uk/bookshop/eBooks/1859353045.pdf
  • Gilbertson J., Green G., Grimsley M. and Manning J. 2005. The Dynamic of Social Capital, Health and Economy. CRESR, Sheffield Hallam University, UK
  • Moore, M.H. (1995) Creating Public Value: Strategic Management in Government. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • MORI (2003) as Duffy, B., Browning, P. and Skinner, G. (2003). Trust in Public Institutions: A report for the Audit Commission. MORI.
  • PM’s Strategy Unit (2002 as Kelly, G., Mulgan, G. and Muers, S. (2002) Creating Public Value: An analytical framework for public service reform, Strategy Unit discussion paper, Cabinet Office, http://www.strategy.gov.uk/downloads/files/public_value2.pdf

AMCIS 2006