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So you had a Revolution…. Now what?. Now What?. Congress of Vienna After Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo, European diplomats met to devise a peace settlement that would restore Europe to the way it was prior to the French Revolution Congress dominated by Prince Clemens von Metternich of Austria

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now what
Now What?
  • Congress of Vienna
    • After Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo, European diplomats met to devise a peace settlement that would restore Europe to the way it was prior to the French Revolution
    • Congress dominated by Prince Clemens von Metternich of Austria
    • Decisions made at the meeting were designed to bring stability and order by repressing nationalistic feelings and preventing liberal political change unleashed by the French Revolution and Napoleon
now what1
Now What?
  • Balance of Power and Restored Monarchs
    • Congress of Vienna established balance of power so that one European power was not more powerful than another militarily
    • Restored more conservative powers
      • Conservatism – set of beliefs held by those who wanted to preserve traditional ways
    • Congress of Vienna was a reaction against revolutionary ideals
now what2
Now What?
  • New Revolutions in Europe
    • The Congress of Vienna helped to maintain peace among nations in Europe for almost 100 years
    • Revolutions did occur within nations because revolutionaries were unhappy with the results of the settlement
    • Opposed the restoration of old European powers and monarchies
new revolutions in europe
New Revolutions in Europe
  • Causes
    • Two main causes of the new revolutions
      • Liberalism
        • People opposed the power of monarchs and sought democratic reforms
      • Nationalism
        • People wanted independent nation-states that were free from foreign rule
now what3
Now What?
  • Revolutions of 1830
    • The French were alarmed by the monarch’s attempt to restore absolutism in France
    • The French people revolted and create a constitutional monarchy
    • Attempts at independence were successful in Greece and Belgium but unsuccessful in Italy, Germany, and Poland
now what4
Now What?
  • Revolutions in 1848
    • France
      • King Louis Philippe’s government was denounced which prompted another revolution
      • The King stepped down and a republic was established
      • Within months of the uprising, upper and middle-class interests gained control of the government and violently put down w workers’ rebellion in Paris
      • Fighting left bitter feelings between working and middle class
now what5
Now What?
  • Revolutions in 1848
    • Austrian Empire
      • When students revolted in Vienna in 1848, Metternich tried to suppress them
      • Ran into trouble when workers joined the upset students
      • The government agreed to certain reforms but when the military took over, revolutionaries were imprisoned, executed, or exiled
now what6
Now What?
  • Revolutions in 1848
    • Italy and Germany
      • Rebellions in Italy were successful just for short periods
      • In Germany, student protestors helped to push for the creation of assemblies that represented the people
      • Revolutions were unsuccessful as they were disorganized and turned on each other
now what7
Now What?
  • Impact of the Revolutions
    • The revolutions in 1830 and 1848 frightened European rulers
    • Some agreed to reforms but the revolts were unsuccessful
      • Most revolutionaries did not have widespread support
      • Sometimes the revolutionaries themselves were divided
      • Powerful government forces often crushed the revolts
now what8
Now What?
  • Absolutism in Czarist Russia
    • Impact of the French Revolution
      • Russian czars strove to keep the ideals of the French Revolution – liberty, equality, and fraternity – from reaching their people
      • Unlike the countries of Western Europe , Russia changed very little in the 1800s
now what9
Now What?
  • Absolutism in Czarist Russia
    • Political Conditions
      • Russian czars resisted reforms, fearing that change would weaken their control
      • Czars fought the introduction of democracy into their society, although these same ideals were gaining momentum in other parts of Europe
entrance ticket
Entrance Ticket!
  • What is Feudalism? How is it set up?
feudalism
Feudalism
  • Evolved from the need to protect land from invasions
  • Kings, Lords, Vassals, Serfs
    • Church/Pope
    • Monarch
    • Lords, Nobles, Priests
    • Knights, Vassals
    • Peasants, Serfs
  • Castles
  • Chivalry
now what10
Now What?
  • Absolutism in Czarist Russia
    • Societal Conditions
      • A Feudal Society
        • Rigid feudal social structure
        • Serfdom in Russia continued although the practice in Western Europe had faded by the 1700s
now what11
Now What?
  • Absolutism in Czarist Russia
    • Societal Conditions
      • Freeing of the Serfs
        • Embarrassing loses in the Crimean War against the Ottomans emphasized the need for Russian modernization
        • Demands for reform, including the freeing of serfs, followed
        • Alexander II freed the serfs in 1861
          • Good idea, except serfs did not have the ability to support themselves
          • Freed serfs moved off their land and into cities leading to further discontent
now what12
Now What?
  • Absolutism in Czarist Russia
    • Societal Conditions
      • Russification
        • Large country with many minorities
        • The policy of attempting to make all groups think, act, and believe as Russians
        • Examples of policy in action:
          • Russian czar Alexander III persecuted non-Russians
          • One language and religion
          • Russian religious policies encouraged anti-semitism and pogroms
          • The authorities stood by and watched as the homes of Jews were burned and their businesses and looted
now what13
Now What?
  • Instability in Latin America
    • Geographic Barriers
      • Latin American nations that gained independence covered a vast area and include several geographic barriers
        • Andes Mountains
      • Fights between leaders and nationalistic feelings kept Latin America from uniting
now what14
Now What?
  • Instability in Latin America
    • Social Injustice
      • Although there were revolutions, the social and economic structures remained intact
      • Creoles replaced peninsulares as the ruling class
      • Established oligarchies in many Latin American countries
now what15
Now What?
  • Instability in Latin America
    • Military Rulers
      • Caudillos put together make-shift armies and challenged centralized governments
      • Led to repressive dictatorships
      • Policies favored the upper class
now what16
Now What?
  • Instability in Latin America
    • Economic Problems
      • Cash Crop Economies
        • Unstable economies based on just one or two commodities
        • Exported one or two crops and imported many manufactured goods
        • Unequal balance of trade led to very unstable economies
now what17
Now What?
  • Instability in Latin America
    • Economic Imperialism
      • Economic gains attributed to foreign investments, mining, railroad
      • Few benefits for majority of population because of rigid class structure
effects of nationalism
Effects of Nationalism
  • Zionism
    • Rise of Nationalism led to intensification of anti-Semitism in late 1800s in Europe
    • As patriotism increased, intolerance for minorities and outsiders increased, including Jews
    • What do we call violent attacks against minorities?
effects of nationalism1
Effects of Nationalism
  • Zionism
    • As anti-Semitism grew, Jews flocked to Palestine
      • Ancient Jewish homeland
    • Theodor Herzl
      • Jewish journalist called for the creation of a Jewish state
      • Led to Zionism – the movement devoted to building a Jewish state in Palestine
nationalism in asia
Nationalism in Asia
  • India
    • British controlled Indian Subcontinent since the 1700s
    • As Indian students learned about democracy and natural rights, they called increasingly for self-rule
nationalism in asia1
Nationalism in Asia
  • India
    • Indian National Congress
      • In 1885 the Indian National Congress, or Congress party formed
      • Composed of Hindu professionals with the goals of equal opportunities in government, modernization and democratic reforms
nationalism in asia2
Nationalism in Asia
  • India
    • Muslim League
      • Muslims and Hindus initially cooperated when trying to achieve self-rule
      • Muslims grew distrustful of Indian National Congress
        • Why?
      • In 1906 Muslims formed the Muslim league to protect their rights and interests
      • The goal of self-rule would be achieved in 1947
nationalism in asia3
Nationalism in Asia
  • Turkey
    • Multinational Ottoman Empire faced challenges from various ethnic groups and nationalism
nationalism in asia4
Nationalism in Asia
  • Turkey
    • Young Turks
      • Established by a group of liberals in 1890, the Young Turks wanted to strengthen the empire and end Western Imperialism in the Ottoman Empire
      • In 1908, they overthrew the sultan and took control of the government
nationalism in asia5
Nationalism in Asia
  • Turkey
    • The Armenian Massacre
      • Young Turks supported Turkish Nationalism
      • Abandoned the Ottoman practice of tolerance
      • Muslim Turks turned against Christian Armenians in the Ottoman Empire
      • Accusing the Armenians of plotting with Russia against the Ottomans, the Turks unleashed a massacre that resulted in the death of over a million Armenians over the next 25 years
nationalism and conflict in the balkans
Nationalism and Conflict in the Balkans
  • Ottomans ruled this diverse area in the 1800s
  • Included Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania
  • Later in the 1800s, nationalistic movements rebelled against foreign rule
  • European powers sought to gain land from weakened Ottoman Empire
  • Russia supported Pan-Slavism
    • Slavic people shared a common nationality
    • Would support Russia
  • Tensions in the Balkans lasted into the early 1900s and would help ignite “the powder keg” of Europe and start WWI