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Westward Expansion. Westward Expansion. Population 1790 Majority lives East of Appalachian mountains and within a few miles of ocean 1840 1/3 lives between Appalachian mountains and Mississippi River The Sweep West Series of bursts 1790s 1791-1803 4 new states 1816-1821 6 new states.

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westward expansion1
Westward Expansion
  • Population
    • 1790
      • Majority lives East of Appalachian mountains and within a few miles of ocean
    • 1840
      • 1/3 lives between Appalachian mountains and Mississippi River
  • The Sweep West
    • Series of bursts
      • 1790s
      • 1791-1803
        • 4 new states
      • 1816-1821
        • 6 new states
  • Characteristics
    • Families
    • Clustered near rivers
    • Regional settlement
  • Society and Customs
    • Craved sociability
    • Rural neighbors joined together
      • Sports, hoedowns
    • Clear division of labor
    • Lack of refinement
    • East-West tensions
westward expansion2
Westward Expansion
  • Far West
    • Adventure spirit
    • Zebulon Pike 1806
    • John Jacob Astor 1811
    • Mountain Men
      • Kit Carlson
      • Jedediah Smith
      • Jim Beckworth
  • Federal Government
    • Promised land to enlisted men War of 1812
    • 6 million acres of “military bounties”
    • Led to Congress authorizing extension of National Road in 1816
indian removal
Indian Removal
  • 5 Civilized Tribes
    • Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles
  • Legislation
    • 1820s
      • Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi legislatures restrict natives rights
  • Jackson
    • 1830 passes Indian Removal Act
      • Trades western public land for Indian land in East
      • 100 million acres of Indian land for 32 million public acres
  • Supreme Court
    • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 1831
      • Marshall denied Cherokee claim as a republic within GA
      • Recognized claim to land
    • Worchester v. Georgia 1832
      • legal position was a “distinct” political community entitled to Federal protection
  • Trail of Tears
    • Treaty of Echota 1835
    • All Cherokee lands sold for $6.5 million
    • Congress ratified
    • 1/3 die during/after Trail of Tears
indian removal1
Indian Removal
  • Northwest Tribes
    • Series of Treaties gave up land
    • Two uprisings
      • Red Bird 1827
        • crushed
      • Blackhawk 1832
        • Resisted removal
        • Attacked by Federal and Militia troops
        • Led to older tribes ceded land to US
growth of market economy
Growth of Market Economy
  • Agricultural Boom
    • Rising prices in commodities drew settlers west
    • Demand for wheat increases
    • Shift to non-agricultural work in NE increases demand
    • River transportation
    • Technological advances
      • 1793 Cotton Gin- Eli Whitney
  • Risk of Market Economy
    • No control of fluctuating distant markets
    • Long interval between harvesting and selling crops
      • Farmers borrow $
      • Short-term debt increases and worse than expected
growth of market economy1
Growth of Market Economy
  • Federal Land Policy
    • Problems with Ordinance of 1785
      • Assumed farmers ban together to buy land
    • Federalists
      • Encourage wealthy land speculators to buy land
      • Laws for min. price $2
    • Jefferson
      • Changes laws. Land Law 1800
  • Speculator/Squatter
    • Preemption
      • Forces small farmers to buy land on credit with high interest
      • Forced to grow cash crops and exhaust soil
      • “moving frontier”
  • Panic of 1819
    • Too many bank notes issued
    • Farmers/investors borrowed tons of $
    • Recession in Britain, bumper crops in Europe= less demand
    • National Bank tightens loan policies
    • Land speculators lose most, land prices fall
    • Significance:
      • Economic damage
      • Bitter taste about banks
      • Farmers depend on distant markets
      • Need better transportation
transportation revolution
Transportation Revolution
  • Weaknesses 1820
    • Rivers flowed North to South
    • Roads expensive
    • Horse-wagons limited
  • Steamboat
    • 1807 Fulton’s Clermont
    • Gibbons v. Ogden 1824
      • Broke up monopoly
      • Increased Steamboat traffic
    • Shipping faster and cheaper
    • Vital role in Miss-Ohio river system
    • 1st air pollution
  • Canals
    • Erie Canal 1817-1825
    • Canal Frenzy
      • Linked Western farms to Eastern cities
      • Constructed by states
      • Three consequences
        • Lowers food prices in East
        • More immigrants move West
        • Stronger economic ties between West and East
      • Boom ended in 1830s
  • Railroads
    • 1825- 1st commercial (UK)
    • US investment 1830s
    • Connected non-river cities
    • Cheaper than canals to build
    • Built by private corporations
transportation revolution1
Transportation Revolution
  • Growth of Cities
    • Caused by Transportation Revolution
    • 1820-1860
    • Dramatic in West
      • Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, St. Louis
      • River ports, commercial hubs
    • Completion of canals shifted boom to Great Lakes
      • Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago
industrialization
Industrialization
  • Beginnings
    • Century behind Britain
    • Samuel Slater 1789
      • 1st Cotton Mill
    • Regional
    • Gradual process
  • Causes
    • Political
      • Embargo Act of 1807
      • Tariff 1816
      • NY Law 1811
    • Tensions in Rural Economy
      • NE, too much pop for land
    • Technology
      • Labor saving machines
      • No guilds
  • Textile Towns in NE
    • 1st industrial region
    • Why?
      • Recession 1808,1810
      • Rivers
      • Surplus of young women
    • Cotton Textile Mills
      • Francis Cabot Lowell 1813
      • Lowell Mills
      • Upset traditional order
    • Protests
      • 1834, 1836
      • Not just against employers, but women vs. men
industrialization1
Industrialization
  • Artisans and Workers in Mid-Atlantic Cities
    • Manufacturing depended on outwork
    • Industrial centers despite lack of rivers
    • Trade Unions
      • As early as 1790s
      • Skilled vs. unskilled
      • Shorter workdays
      • Obstacles:
        • Immigration
        • State laws prohibiting Unions
        • Frequent economic depression
  • Equality and Inequality
    • Rich and Poor
      • Few examples of “rags to riches”
        • John Jacob Astor
      • Most people poor
      • Young nation with little property
      • Deserving poor vs. undeserving
      • Immigrants
        • Irish Catholic
    • Free Blacks
      • Deeply rooted prejudice
      • Restrictions in North
      • Response
        • 1st black run churches
        • African Methodist Episcopal Church in Philly
industrialization2
Industrialization
  • Middling Class
    • Most lived in middle
    • Professionals, landowning farmers, small merchants, artisans
    • High degree of transience and unpredictability
  • Social Relationships
    • Two generalizations
      • Questioning authority
      • New foundations of authority
    • Attack of Professions
      • Lawyers, Physicians, Ministers
  • Challenge to Family Authority
    • Staying home vs. leaving
    • Free of parental supervision
    • Changes in marriage decisions
  • Wives and Husbands
    • Separate “spheres”
    • Children
      • Raising
      • Birth control
  • Horizontal Allegiances
    • New allegiances to social networks
      • Religious, philosophical
      • Vehicles to assert influence