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Reduction of the Uncertainty on Noise Figure Measurements A. Cremonini 1 , M. De Dominicis 2 , S. Mariotti 1 , E. Limiti 3 , A.Serino 3. INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY. UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME. 1 INAF – Institute of Radioastronomy - Bologna – Italy

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Reduction of the Uncertainty on Noise Figure Measurements A. Cremonini 1, M. De Dominicis 2, S. Mariotti 1 , E. Limiti 3, A.Serino 3

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

1INAF – Institute of Radioastronomy- Bologna – Italy

2Elettronica s.p.a. – V. Tiburtina Valeria, Rome – Italy

3University “Tor Vergata” – Electronic Eng. Dept.– Rome - Italy

Sergio Mariotti s.mariotti@ira.inaf.it Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

why reduce uncertainty
WHY Reduce Uncertainty?

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

+/- 3.5 % = +/- 0.15 dB

For a receiver:NF = 0.3 +/-0.15 dBTe = 21 +/- 11 K

Uncertainty should be much lower than the value to be measured

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

how reduce uncertainty
HowReduce Uncertainty?

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

  • Looking for and Find Sources of Uncertainty (U)
  • Minimize the sources wherever it is possible
  • Analyze and propagate uncertainty
  • Since U(ENR) is dominant, let do calibration of NoiseSource with a Secondary Standard (liq. N2)
  • Let Practical operations accurate as possible

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

involved environments
Involved Environments

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

Room Temperature Cryogenic /on Dewar

- easier

- faster

- accurate

- less jitter

- more realistic

- accurate

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

sources causes of uncertainty propagation math formulation
Sources (causes) of Uncertainty:Propagation, Math Formulation

F12

F1 = 3 dB

G1= 15 dB

F2 = 10dB

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

  • Depend on many causes, even U(ENR)

Depend on U(ENR)

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

causes of uncertainty graphical intuitive
Causes of Uncertainty:Graphical - Intuitive

Ph

Ph

Ph

Pc

Pc

Pc

Te

Tc

Th

Te

Tc

Th

Tc

Te

Th

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

Reducing Tc, will reduce U(Te)

Reducing U(Th) and U(Tc) will reduce U(Te)

Increasing Th don’t reduce U(Te) , because U(Th)/This a constant

Instead increase Th may generate non-linearity . Yopt 2…5

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

causes of uncertainty practical tips tricks
Causes of Uncertainty:Practical, Tips&Tricks

6 dB

10 dB

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

|S11 ON| , |S11 OFF| < - 33 dB

Selected Attenuator

PT 100 A

Cascade Ferrite Isolators

Precision Connectors / Connector Care

NO cables movement

Environment: Thermostatic room,

Type A Uncert. << Type B Uncert.

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

other causes of uncertainty
Other causes of Uncertainty:

rNS

rDUT

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

Mismatch: A closed form expression doesn’t exist

Approximate Expression

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

principle of operation 1 3
Principle of Operation 1/3

800 mW

800 mW

9400 mW

3200 mW

9400 mW

3200 mW

POWER METER

POWER METER

POWER METER

POWER METER

POWER METER

POWER METER

Liq. N2

77 K

Liq. N2

77 K

Liq. N2

77 K

Liq. N2

77 K

Liq. N2

77 K

Liq. N2

77 K

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

Noise Source

+

Attenuator

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

principle of operation 2 3
Principle of Operation 2/3

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

Vector Correction

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

pictures
Pictures

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

  • Coaxial
  • 1-18 GHz
  • WR 28
  • 26.5-40 GHz
  • WR 22
  • 33-50 GHz

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

data analysis
Data Analysis

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

MatLab®codes has been used to:

Process spar of non insertable Adapter

Compute Mismatch and Available Gain

Instruments control and automatic data collection

Calculate ENR and associated Uncertainty

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

uncertainty of the result
Uncertainty of the Result

S par Uncertainty

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

Depend on U(Tcryo)

S par Uncertainty

Uncertainty of VNA is dominant ( 0.045 dB - hp 8510C )

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

results and associated uncertainty
Results andAssociated Uncertainty

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

U(ENR) was +/- 0.15 dB

U(ENR) = +/- 0.06 dB

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

spin off for the lnas
Spin-off for the LNAs

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

what can we do 1 3
WHAT can we do ? 1/3

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

  • No possibility to further reduce ENR Uncertainty
  • … but we may transfer our expertise to reduce ENR Uncertainty of other Noise Sources
  • REQUEST and submit a PROPOSAL
  • Need to share expensive Instruments (CryoLoad)

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

what can we do 2 3
WHAT can we do ? 2/3

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

  • PROPOSAL: Comparition of Noise Figure Measurementover community (better if even larger)
  • As the IEEE “Round Robin”, an LNA will be sentto European Laboratories to be measured.Each laboratory will perform measurement asusual and according to its own methodology
  • Measured data will be compared and published

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

what can we do 3 3
WHAT can we do ? 3/3

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

Euro Plug

  • LNA Bandwidth has been chosen to be a bridge between the “easy” 1-18 GHz and the “difficult”over 18 GHz.
  • Freq. 16 – 26 GHz,Gain=27dB,NF=1.6 dB (130K)

Power Supply

LNA

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

essential bibliography
Essential Bibliography

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

  • [1] J. Randa, “Noise Temperature Measurements on wafer” NIST Tech. Note 1390 03/1997
  • [2] Agilent Technologies, “Noise Figure measurement accuracy – The Y-Factor method”, Application Note 57-2, 2001.
  • [3] W.C. Daywitt, “Radiometer equation and analysis of systematic errors for the NIST automated radiometers”, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Technical Note 1327, 03/1989.
  • [4] C.T. Stelzried, “Temperature calibration of microwave thermal noise sources”, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques (Correspondence), Vol. MTT-13, No. 1, 01/1965, pp. 128-130.
  • [5] R.F. Bauer, P. Penfield, “De-Embedding and Unterminating”, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 22, No. 3, 03/1974, pp. 282-288.
  • [6] J.D. Gallego, “Accuracy of Noise Temperature Measurement of Cryogenic Amplifiers”, - NRAO Int. Rep. No 285 jan. 1990.

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

conclusions
Conclusions

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

  • The ENR of some Noise Sources has been calibrated.
  • The Uncertainty related to ENR has been reduced from +/-0.15 dB typ to +/- 0.06 dB typ
  • Waveguide, millimeter cryoloads are needed to improve reliability
  • The calibration routine and the instrumental set-up may be repeated once again.

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006

thanks
Thanks

INSTITUTE OF RADIOASTRONOMY, - ITALY

UNIVERSITY “TOR VERGATA” - ROME

Sergio Mariotti Göteborg, jun 19th 2006