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Chapter Three. Positioning and Targeting for MarCom Efforts.

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All marketing communications should be: (1) directed to a particular target market, (2) clearly positioned, (3) created to achieve a specific objective, and (4) undertaken to accomplish the objective within the budget constraint.
brand positioning
Brand Positioning

A positioning statement for a brand represents how we want customers and prospects to think and feel about our brand.

positioning approaches
Positioning Approaches
  • Positioning via Attributes
    • Product-related features
    • Usage and User imagery
  • Positioning via Brand Benefits
positioning via brand benefits
Positioning via Brand Benefits

Positioning with respect to brand benefits can be accomplished by appealing to any of three categories of needs.

Functional Needs

Symbolic Needs

Experiential Needs

targeting variables
Targeting Variables

1. Demographics

2. Psychographics

3. Geodemographics

4. Behaviorgraphics

demographic targeting1
Demographic Targeting

Mature Consumers:

demographic targeting2
Demographic Targeting

Mature Consumers:

demographic targeting3
Demographic Targeting

Children and


demographic targeting4
Demographic Targeting

Children and


generation y
Generation Y
  • Approximately 50 million people
  • Born between 1982 and 1994
  • Teens to mid-20’s
the changing age structure
The Changing Age Structure
  • 50+ million people born 1965-1981
  • Baby Busters
  • Portrayed as cynical, unmotivated, hopeless
demographic targeting5
Demographic Targeting











Yup & Comers: The highest levels of education and income,

focus on intangible rewards and confident about themselves

Bystanders: Predominantly female of African-Americans and

Hispanics, disposable income is low but love fashion and shopping

Playboys: “Pleasure before duty” lifestyle, self-absorbed, fun-loving

and impulsive

Drifters: Frustrated with their lives, the least educated, and choose

brands that offer a sense of belonging and self-esteem

demographic targeting6
Demographic Targeting

% of population as of 2000

u s demographics targeting
U.S. Demographics & Targeting

How do buyers of these vehicles differ demographically?

A) Sport-Utility Vehicles

B) Minivans

u s demographics targeting1
U.S. Demographics & Targeting

Which of these represent a meaningful target market?

A) Baby boomers

B) African-Americans

C) Generation X


More than a set of purchase decisions. Express who one is in society (and who one is not).

Identities derive, in part, from symbolism of products one tends to consume.



Building blocks of lifestyles

Advertised as props

Used as props in ad background


Meaning of Products


Meaning of Products

Kraft Macaroni & Cheese


Meaning of Products

Flannel Shirt

consumption constellations
Consumption constellations

Sets of products whose symbolic meanings are complementary.

How do marketers characterize and describe different consumption constellations?

  • Use of psychological, sociological, anthropological factors to determine how the market is segmented by the choices of groups within the market.
  • Combines knowledge of lifestyle preferences with personality variables and other information.
  • VALS (SRI); Yankelovich MindBase
psychographics an illustration
Psychographics: An Illustration

Molson Export Beer:

  • Target customer:
  • Ads:
  • Claim:
psychographic targeting
Psychographic Targeting
  • Psychographics represents a combination of consumers’ activities, interests and opinions (AIO items)
  • Useful but more difficult to identify and measure compared to demographic variables
  • Eight categories are identified based on a combination of demographic and lifestyle factors such as age, income, education, level of self-confidence, health, and interest in consumer issues
  • Two-dimensional format

Three motivational orientations

1. Ideals-oriented:

2. Achievement-oriented:

3. Self-expression-oriented:

consumer motivation
Consumer Motivation

VALS Groupings:

What is this information used for?

consumer motivation1
Consumer Motivation
  • Experiencers
  • Main component of action-oriented segment
  • Young, enthusiastic, impulsive
  • Active in both physical and social activities
  • Want “cool” stuff



vals segmentation
VALS Segmentation

Isuzu Rodeo

Target: Experiencers

Positioning: Car that lets driver break the rules (running with scissors, coloring out of the lines).

What if…

Target: Achievement-oriented. What would be a good positioning for them?

consumer motivation2
Consumer Motivation
  • Believers
  • Conservative. Family and community oriented people
  • Modest means
  • Brand loyal
  • Favor American-made products



consumer motivation3
Consumer Motivation
  • Strivers
  • Lower-income people
  • Values similar to achievers
  • Active consumers, impulsive but constrained



consumer motivation4
Consumer Motivation
  • Makers
  • Traditional, action-oriented
  • Self-sufficient
  • Suspicious of new ideas
  • Practical with little interest in most material possessions



geodemographic targeting
Geodemographic Targeting

People who reside in similar areas,

such as neighborhoods or postal ZIP-

code zones, also share demographic

and lifestyle similarities

geodemographic targeting1
Geodemographic Targeting
  • Companies that have developed geodemographic services
    • Donnelly Marketing (Cluster Plus)
    • Claritas (PRIZM)
    • CACI (ACORN)
    • National Decision Systems (Vision)
geodemographic targeting2
Geodemographic Targeting

Claritas’s PRIZM

  • Potential rating index by zip markets
  • Delineated the 500,000 + U.S. neighborhoods into 60+ (from 40) clusters with descriptive names that characterize these regions
  • www.yawyl.claritas.com (try it!)
behaviorgraphic targeting
Behaviorgraphic Targeting

Based on how people behave (toward a particular product category or class of related products) rather than in terms of their attitude and lifestyles, their age, income, or ethnicity, or where they live.

The best predictor of one’s future behavior is his or her past behavior.

online behavioral targeting
Online Behavioral Targeting
  • “Audience Management Systems” track Internet users’ surfing behavior in order to target them with specific advertisements.