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Laboratory 02 The Discovery of Chemical Change Through the Chemistry of Copper. Objectives. Observe chemical changes through a series of chemical reactions. Learn simple mass and volume measuring techniques. Understand and use the law of conservation mass.
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The Discovery of Chemical Change Through
the Chemistry of Copper
Law of conservation of mass is a relation stating that in a chemical reaction, the mass of the products equals the mass of the reactants.
Copper is an essential element for plants and animal, through not in metallic form but as copper (II) ions.
Copper (II) salts contain the copper atoms in an ionized or charged form and are typically blue to green in color.
The cycle of copper reactions to be performed in this experiment
Cu(s) + 4HNO3(aq) Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2NO2(g) + 2 H2O(l)
A common form of chemical reaction which is the combining of oxygen with various
elements and compounds.
The corrosion of metals is a form of oxidation, rust on iron for example is iron oxide.
Safety Issue: NO2 which is generated during this experiment is very dangerous. ADD NITRIC ACID IN A HOOD!Do not walk around the room with a flask that is evolving brown NO2 gases!
Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Cu(OH)2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)
Cu(OH)2(s) + heat CuO(s) + H2O(l)
Dehydration involves the loss of water
CuO(s) + H2SO4(aq) CuSO4(aq) + H2O(l)
Most metal oxides are basic oxide and react with acids to form salts and water: metal oxide + acid --> salt + water.
CuSO4(aq) + Zn(s) ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)
Hydrogen gas is highly flammable and will burn in air at a very wide range of concentrations between 4% and 75% by volume.
Zn(s) + HCl (aq) ZnCl(aq) + H2(g)
Weigh and calculate the mass of copper recovered and your percent yield using the following equation:
· Wear safety glasses at ALL TIMES.
You will be using nitric, sulfuric and hydrochloric acids as well
as sodium hydroxide all are damaging to skin, clothing and
especially your eyes.
· Perform Reaction 1 in a fume hood. Toxic NO2 is produced.
· Hydrogen gas is evolved in Reaction 5.
Keep your apparatus away from open flames.