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Biology, Cells, and Proteins. Biology. Biology is the study of LIVING THINGS and how they INTERACT with their environment There are MANY different types of living things. Since biology has to cover all of these different types of life, there are many different kinds of biology.

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  • Biology is the study of LIVING THINGS and how they INTERACT with their environment
  • There are MANY different types of living things.
  • Since biology has to cover all of these different types of life, there are many different kinds of biology.
    • Eg. – Cell Biology, Biochemistry, Zoology, Botony, Mycology, Environmental Biology, Physiology, Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology, Ecology, Genetics, Astrobiology, etc.
  • If biology is the study of life, then what is Life? What does it meant to be “living”?
    • There are many definitions of what Life is and it really depends what culture you are from
      • Example – Western Culture (Europe, Canada, and the USA) would consider animals and plants types of life but rocks would not be types of life. Indigenous Cultures in Canada typically thought everything was living and had life to it.
  • Living things are made of Cells
  • Cells are the building blocks of all LIVING THINGS
    • Don’t get this confused with ATOMS!!!
    • Cells are made of atoms and are WAY bigger.
  • There are 2 types of cells
    • Prokaryotic – evolved early, simple life. Includes all types of bacteria
    • Eukaryotic – evolved ‘later’, more complex. What all living things other than bacteria are made of.
eukaryotic cells
Eukaryotic Cells
  • Eukaryotic cells are very small but are bigger than prokaryotic


  • Can be a single cell or can be multicellular
    • Multicellular – made of more than one cell that function together.
      • Example – humans, plants, animals, fungus, etc.
  • They have a nucleus
    • Nucleus – contains genetic material. Kind of like the ‘brain’ of the cell. Controls what the cell does and how it behaves.
  • Have organelles
    • Organelles – structures that carry out the functions for the cell (turn food into energy, fight diseases, kill outside objects, etc)
eukaryotic cell diagram
Eukaryotic Cell Diagram
  • In Grade 8 you studied the cell, try your best to label the diagram below
  • Cell Wall – Only in plants and fungus – Gives structure to cell
  • Cell Membrane – lets materials in and out of cell
  • Cytoplasm – like the ‘blood’ of the cell. Liquid that suspends organelles
  • **Nucleus** – ‘brain’ of cell. Controls the functions of the cell
  • Mitochondria – ‘power plant’ of cell. Makes energy from food.
  • Chloroplast – Only in plants – turns sunlight into sugars
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum – helps make fats and transport materials
  • Golgi Apparatus – packages proteins to leave the cell
  • Vacuole – stores extra water and food
  • Ribosome – makes proteins.
    • **Proteins**– molecules that carry out all of the functions of a cell
prokaryotic cells
Prokaryotic Cells
  • Prokaryotic cells are very simple, very small types of cells.
  • Prokaryotic means:
    • ‘Pro-’ –early
    • ‘-kary-’ –kernel
  • They are single cells
  • Typically called bacteria
  • Have no organelles
  • Have no nucleus
organelles and proteins
Organelles and Proteins
  • The major functions of the cell are carried out in the organelles of the cell
    • They are like the cell’s organs
    • They process food, transport materials, help moves, etc.
  • Organelles carry out these functions using proteins
  • Proteins are molecules
  • Proteins carry out all of the functions inside the cell
  • They are a type of molecule called a polymer
    • Polymer – made up of the same, repeating part.
  • The repeating parts that make up a protein are called amino acids
    • There are 20 amino acids in nature
  • Proteins are made of amino acids
  • Amino Acids connect to each other making long chains
  • The chain of amino acids is a protein
  • There are 20 amino acids
  • The order they are connected is what determines the type of protein
  • Each type of protein does a different job inside of the cell.
protein example
Protein Example
  • A protein is made of Met-Arg-Lys-Tyr
    • The job of this protein is to bring sugar into the mitochondria
    • The order of the amino acids (basic repeating parts) causes it to carry out this job
  • A 2nd protein is made of Met-Glu-Val-Ala-Ile-Pro.
    • The job of this protein is to break apart fats
    • The order of the amino acids causes it to carry out this job.
how can we see cells
How Can We See Cells?
  • Cells are extremely tiny, so to see them we must use a special tool
  • This tool is called a microscope
    • Micro = extremely small
    • Scope = see, sight
types of microscopes
Types of Microscopes
  • There are many types of microscopes, each with a different job
  • We will be using a Light Microscope
parts of a microscope
Parts of a Microscope
  • Eyepiece – Zooms in 10x
  • Objective Lens – Zooms in 4x, 10x, and 40x
  • Arm – Connects base and stage to the eyepiece
  • Stage – Where the object to be viewed is placed
  • Diaphragm – Controls the amount of light going through
  • Fine Focus – Focuses very slowly
  • Coarse Focus – Focuses quickly. Should only be used on lowest power
  • Light – Shines a light through the object
  • Base – Holds the microscope flat and steady
microscope rules
Microscope Rules
  • Microscopes are very delicate, carefully tuned instruments
    • They are not toys to be played with
  • Not using them properly can easily lead to them breaking or to you breaking a slide
  • You MUST follow all of the following rules in order to be allowed to continue using a microscope
microscope rules1
Microscope rules
  • Always carry a microscope with 2 hands
    • 1 on the arm, 1 on the base
  • Always start by finding your object on the LOWEST power
    • If you wish to zoom in, turn the objective lens to the next highest power
    • Use fine focus on the higher powers. Using coarse focus can crack the slide
  • Watch carefully as you focus on the higher powers. If you get close to the slide, stop.
microscope rules2
Microscope rules
  • You may have to move your slide around to find your object.
  • DO NOT touch the lenses with your fingers
  • When you are finished put your microscope away properly
    • Put your slide away
    • Turn off the light
    • Move the stage all the way down
    • Move the objective lens to the lowest power
    • Put the dust cover back on