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Disaccharides. Disaccharides. 3 main disaccharides-sucrose maltose lactose All are isomers with molecular formula C 12 H 22 O 11 . On hydrolysis they yield 2 monosaccharide. Soluble in water

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disaccharides1
Disaccharides
  • 3 main disaccharides-sucrose

maltose

lactose

  • All are isomers with molecular formula C12H22O11.
  • On hydrolysis they yield 2 monosaccharide.
  • Soluble in water
  • Even though they are soluble in water, they are too large to pass through the cell membrane.
structure of disaccharides
Structure of Disaccharides.
  • Formed by combination of 2 monosaccharides.
  • Bonds between 2 monosaccharide are known as Glycosidic bond.
  • Consider a combination of a molecule of alpha –glucose and a molecule of beta glucose, the product is a beta maltose and water.
fermentation
Fermentation
  • Sucrose and maltose will ferment when yeast is added because yeast contains the enzyme sucrase and maltase.
  • Lactose will not ferment because yeast does not contain lactase.
testing for disaccharides
Testing for disaccharides
  • The chemical reactions of these sugars can be used to distinguish them in the laboratory.
  • If you have 2 test tubes containing a disaccharide,C12H22O11.To determine if it is sucrose lactose or maltose.
  • We can use the alkaline Cu complex reaction of glucose and the principle of fermentation.
sucrose
Sucrose
  • Is a sugar used at home
  • Also known as the cane sugar
  • When hydrolyzed, it forms a mixture of glucose and fructose.
maltose
Maltose
  • Commonly known as malt sugar.
  • Present in germinating grain
  • Produced commercially by hydrolysis of starch.
lactose
Lactose
  • Commercially known as milk sugar.
  • Of animal origin
  • Bacteria cause fermentation of lactose forming lactic acid.
  • When these reaction occur ,it changes the taste to a sour one.
polysaccharides
Polysaccharides
  • Are polymers of monosaccharides.
  • Hydrolysis produces many molecules of monosaccharide.
  • Can be formed from pentoses or the 5 carbon sugars or the hexoses or six carbon sugars.
  • Those from pentoses are called pentosans
  • Those from hexoses are hexosans or sometimes called the glucosans.
  • The hexosans are most common in terms of physiology.
  • The hexosans have the general formula (C6H10O5)x
polysaccharides1
Polysaccharides
  • The hexosans have the general formula (C6H10O5)x.
  • Where x is a large number.
  • Some of the common hexosans are starch, cellulose and dextrin.
starch
Starch
  • Insoluble in water
  • Gives a characteristic blue colour with iodine.
  • Test is used to determine the presence of starch in any solution or even to test for iodine.
cellulose
Cellulose
  • Wood, cotton and paper are composed primarily of cellulose.
glycogen
Glycogen
  • Is present in the body and stored in the liver and muscles.
  • Where it supplies glucose.
  • Forms a colloidal solution in water and gives a red color with iodine.
  • Glycogen is formed in the body cells from molecules of glucose. In a process called glycogenesis.
  • When glycogen is hydrolyzed to glucose, the process is called glycogenolysis.
heparin
Heparin
  • Is a polysaccharide used as blood anticoagulant.
  • It accelerates the inactivation of thrombin and other blood-clotting agents
  • It’s the strongest organic acid found in the body
  • Other polysaccharides are Dextran and Heparin.