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Fronting and inversion

Fronting and inversion. Emphatic structures. Fronting and inversion. DEFINITIONS: Fronting : this is when we start a sentence with sth (i.e. a complement of “be” or an adverbial of place or direction ) that is not the subject : Up jumped the cat.

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Fronting and inversion

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  1. Fronting and inversion Emphaticstructures

  2. Fronting and inversion DEFINITIONS: Fronting: thisiswhenwestart a sentencewithsth (i.e. a complement of “be” oran adverbial of place ordirection) thatisnotthesubject: Upjumpedthe cat. Inversion: thisiswhenthewordorder in a statementisnotthetypicalsubject + verb, butauxiliary + subject + verb: NeverdidIstoplovingyou.

  3. Fronting and inversion USES: We use fronting and inversion: • Becausewewanttoemphasizewhatweput at thebeginning of thesentence • In formal texts

  4. Fronting Structure: FRONTED/EMPHASIZED ELEMENT + VERB + SUBJECT: Herecomesthe doctor. • Whenthesubjectis a personal pronoun, wekeepthe usual wordorder(fronted + subject+ verb): Herehe comes. (Not: Herecomes he). • Wedon’t use “DO”: Thecatjumped up. –> Up didjumpthecat Upjumpedthe cat.

  5. Fronting Uses: Wefindthewordorder FRONTED ELEMENT + VERB + SUBJECT: • Whenthecomplement of “be” isfronted: HisspecialityisAndaluciangastronomy.  Andaluciangastronomyishisspeciality. A beachhutis standing onthesand.  Standing onthesandis a beachhut. • Whenan adverbial of place, directionor time isfronted: Anoldwomanwasbehindthedesk. –> Behindthedeskwasanoldwoman. (place) Joan walkedintotheroom. –> Intotheroomwalked Joan. (direction) The scouts camefirst.  Firstcamethe scouts. (time)

  6. Inversion Structure: EMPHASIZED ELEMENT + AUXILIARY + SUBJECT + VERB • Whenthesentencedoesnotcontainanauxiliaryverb, we use a form of “do”: Werarelyvisitthatpart of thetown.  Rarely do wevisitthatpart of thetown. Emphasized el. – aux – subject – verb

  7. Inversion Uses: Wefindthewordorder EMPHASIZED ELEMENT + AUXIL. + SUBJECT + VERB: • Whena negativeword/phraseisput at thebeginning of thesentence: Notuntil I got homedid I realisehowlucky I hadbeen. Under no circumstancesshouldyouexerciseaftereating a heavy meal. Neverbeforehad I seenanything so beautiful. No longercan boys and girls pick up theirskillsfromtheirparents. No soonerhad Tim left, thanthephonerang. A: I can’tswim. B: Neither/ Norcan I. (With “neither/nor” thereis no mainverbafterthesubject)

  8. Inversion Uses: Wefindthewordorder EMPHASIZED ELEMENT + AUXIL. + SUBJECT + VERB: • When a limitingword/phrase (only/little) isput at thebeginning of thesentence: Onlyafterherdeathwas I abletoaprreciateher. Onlywhen I tookthe testdid I realisehowlittle I knew. Onlylaterdidsherealisethatshehadbeengiventhewrongchange. Little did I know that the course of my life was about to change. “Little” (adverb) isusedhereto say that someone did not know or think that something would happen or was true.

  9. Inversion Uses: Wefindthewordorder AUXILIARY + SUBJECT + VERB: (Heretheauxiliaryverbistheemphasizedelement) • In conditionalclauses, whenwedon’t use theconditionalconjuntionbutstartwiththeauxiliaries “should/were/had”: • Firstconditional: SHOULD + SUBJECT + INFINITIVE VERB Ifyouarrive late, gostraighttomy office.  Shouldyouarrive late, gostraighttomy office. • Secondconditional: WERE + SUBJECT + TO-INFINITIVE VERB Ifwereducedtheprice, wewouldmake no profit.  Wereweto reduce theprice, wewouldmake no profit. • Thirdconditional: HAD + SUBJECT + PAST PERFECT VERB If I hadknown, I wouldhaveprotestedstrongly.  Had I known, I wouldhaveprotestedstrongly.

  10. Inversion Uses: Wefindthewordorder EMPHASIZED ELEMENT + AUXIL.(=MAIN VERB) + SUBJECT: • When “so” isused at thebeginning of a sentence/clause: So successfulwasherbusinessthat Marie retired at theage of 50. Weleftearly and sodidmyfriends. A: I’mhungry. B: So am I. • When“such” isused at thebeginning of a sentence: Suchisthepopularity of theplaythatthetheatreislikelyto be full everynight.

  11. Fronting and inversion Createdby: Carmen Luisa Pérez Amaro

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