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ITF212 - International Trade and Investment. OECD. 30 May 2013 Izmir University of Economics. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Lecturer : Assoc . Prof. Dr. Hasan Fehmi Baklacı. Arman Onart, Fatih Can Balcı , Muratcan Arslan , Fatih Kaya.

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ITF212 - International TradeandInvestment

OECD

30 May 2013

IzmirUniversity of Economics

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Lecturer: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hasan Fehmi Baklacı

Arman Onart, Fatih Can Balcı , Muratcan Arslan, Fatih Kaya

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

What is the OECD?

  • An Organisation of 30 member countries committed to democracy and the market economy
  • A provider of comparative data, analysis and forecasts
  • so that governments can:
  • - compare policy experiences
  • - seek answers to common problems
  • - identify good practice
  • - and co-ordinate domestic and internationalpolicies

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

TheOECD’smission

  • Article 1 of the OECD Convention:
  • Support economic growth
  • Boost employment
  • Raise living standards
  • Maintain financial stability
  • Assist other countries’ economic development
  • Contribute to growth in world trade

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

The OECD: What is it?

  • Triesto produce
    • Internationally agreed instruments
    • Anddecisions and recommendations
  • Focuseson economic and social issues like
    • Macroeconomics
    • International trade
    • Education
    • Development
    • Science and Innovation
  • Provides comparative data, analysis and forecasts, obtained from member countries to help other members increase policy effectiveness

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

The OECD: What is it? (cont’d)

  • Databases:
  • OECD provides one of the world’s largest and most reliable sources of comparable statistical, economic and social data.
  • OECD databases span areas as diverse
    • national accounts,
    • economic indicators,
    • trade, employment,
    • migration,
    • education,
    • energy,
    • health
    • and the environment.

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

slide6

ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

The OECD: What is it? (cont’d)

  • Secretariat:
  • Information, data and analysis provided by a secretariat in Paris.
  • The secretariat collects
    • data,
    • monitors trends,
    • make analyses
    • forecasts economic developments,
    • researches social changes
  • researches evolving patterns in
    • trade,
    • environment,
    • agriculture,
    • technology,
    • taxation

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

The OECD: What is it? (cont’d)

  • Membership: 
    • is limited only by a country’s commitment to a market economy and a pluralistic democracy.
    • It is rich, in that its 30 members produce almost 60% of the world’s goods and services, but it is by no means exclusive.
  • Non-members:
    • are invited to subscribe to OECD agreements and treaties, and in exchange OECD shares expertise, data and analyses
    • more than 70 countries worldwide, from Brazil, China and Russia to least developed countries in Africa.

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

An organisation with global reach

OECD Member Countries

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

The OECD: History

  • OECD grew out of the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) which was set up in 1948
  • OEEC was started to co-ordinate the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II
  • OECD was created in as a economic counterpart to NATO and took over from OEEC in 1961
  • Marshall Plan: Post-war European Aid Program

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

Our Environment

  • Make markets work for a healthier environment
  • Use science and technology to benefit people everywhere
  • Cut wastage and pollution

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

Economics and Trade

  • Analyse and publish comparative data
  • Produce forecasts
  • Develop policies for growth and stability
  • Foster open markets
  • Encourage expansion of financial services
  • Promote cross-border investment
  • Share best practices

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

Social Cohesion

  • Ensure equal access to education for all
  • Promote effective and accessible health systems
  • Fight social exclusion and unemployment
  • Bridge the “digital divide“ between rich and poor

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

Governance

  • Promote effective public administration
  • Encourage companies to run their affairs better
  • Ensure transparent and fair tax systems
  • Foster fair competition
  • Fight corruption and money-laundering
  • Promote high ethical standards
  • Encourage citizen-participation in policy-making

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

Governance

  • Promote effective public administration
  • Encourage companies to run their affairs better
  • Ensure transparent and fair tax systems
  • Foster fair competition
  • Fight corruption and money-laundering
  • Promote high ethical standards
  • Encourage citizen-participation in policy-making

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

The OECD: How it works

  • Three main bodies in OECD
    • Council,
    • Committees,
    • Secretariat
  • Council:
    • Holds the decision making power in OECD
    • Made up of one representative from each member country plus a representative from European Commission
    • Meets regularly and decisions are taken by consensus
    • Meets once a year at the ministerial level to deicide on key issues and set priorities for OECD work

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

The OECD: How it works (cont’d)

  • Secretariat:
    • Carries the work mandated by the Council
    • Some 2 000 staff of the OECD secretariat in Paris work to support the activities of committees.
    • Staff includes about 700 economists, lawyers, scientists and other professionals, mainly based in a dozen substantive directorates, who provide research and analysis.
    • The secretariat is headed by a Secretary-General, assisted by four Deputy Secretaries-General.

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

The OECD: How it works (cont’d)

  • Secretariat:
    • The OECD works in two official languages: English and French.
    • Staff members are international civil servants
    • No quota system for national representation

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

The OECD: How it works (cont’d)

  • Committees:
    • Composed of representatives of the 30 member countries to advance ideas and review progress in specific policy areas, such as
      • economics,
      • trade,
      • science,
      • employment,
      • education
      • financial markets.
    • There are around 200 committees, working groups, and expert groups in all
    • Senior officials from national governments come to OECD committee meetings each year to
      • request, review
      • contribute to work undertaken by the OECD Secretariat.

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

Who drives the OECD’s work?

Council

Annual budget: 336 million euros funded by member countries

Oversight and strategic direction

Representatives of member countries and of the European Commission; decisions taken by consensus

Committees

Secretariat

Discussion and implementation

Analysis and proposals

Representatives of member countries and of invited non-Members work with the OECD Secretariat on specific issues

Secretary-General

Deputy Secretaries-General

Directorates

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

slide20

ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

The OECD: Budget & Funding

  • Fundedby its 30 member countries
  • National contributions to the annual budget are based on a formula related to the size of each member’s economy.
  • Some contributors to budget
    • 1) United States 24.975% 
    • 2) Japan 17.467%
    • 3) Germany 9.383 %
    • 4) United Kingdom 7.206 %
    • 5) France 6.716 %
    • 20) Turkey 0.793 %
  • With the approval of the Council, countries may also make separate contributions to particular programs not funded from the main budget.
  • The size of budget – 336 mil euros in 2006, 330 mil euros in 2005

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

The OECD: The Work

  • Unlike the World Bank or the IMF, the OECD is not a financing institution (do not give money)
  • OECD work starts with
    • Data collection and analysis then
    • Discussion of policy and decision making then
    • Implementation
  • Mutual examination by governments, multilateral surveillance and peer pressure to conform the implementation of decisions

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

The OECD: The Work

  • Sometimes negotiations where OECD countries agree on rules of the game for international co-operation to culminate formal agreements or standards, for example
    • on combating bribery,
    • on export credits
    • on capital movements,
    • on international taxation
    • on corporate governance
    • on environmental practices, etc.

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

slide23

ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

OECD’s Way of Working

Data Collection

Analysis

Discussion

Decisions

Implementation

Peer reviews,

multilateral surveillance

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

slide24

ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

Working with Governments

  • Sharing information and experience
  • Country and region-based co-operation programmes
  • Peer review and surveillance

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

Working with civil society

  • Consulting with business
    • represented by the Business and Industry Advisory Committee
  • Consulting with labour
    • represented by the Trade Union Advisory Committee
  • Expanding relations with civil society
  • Making information available to the public on www.oecd.org
  • Public comment always welcome!

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

The OECD: Directorates

  • There are 16 directorates under secretariat
    • Development Co-operation Directorate
    • Economics Department
    • Directorate for Education
    • Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs
    • Center for Entrepreneurship, SMEs and Local Development
    • Environment Directorate
    • Directorate for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries
    • Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
    • Public Affairs and Communications

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

The OECD: Directorates (Cont.)

  • Public Governance and Territorial Development Directorate
  • Center for Tax Policy and Administration
  • Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry
  • Trade Directorate
  • Executive Directorate
  • Center for Co-operation with Non-Members
  • Statistics Directorate

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

The OECD: Associated Organizations

  • There are 6 other organizations associated with OECD
    • Development Center
      • carries out comparative analysis of development issues and promotes informal policy dialogue with emerging and developing countries
      • Non-OECD countries Brazil, Chile, India, Romania, South Africa and Thailand are members of the Centre
    • Center for Educational Research and Innovation
      • Investigates long-range trends and innovations in education

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

The OECD: Associated Organizations (Contd)

  • International Energy Agency
  • Nuclear Energy Agency
  • Sahel and West Africa Club
    • supports the efforts of 17 African countries to define and implement medium and long-term development strategies for the region
  • European Conference of Ministers of Transport
    • an independant body linked to the OECD that deals with issues of improvement of all forms of transport.

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

The OECD: Associated Organizations (Contd)

  • International Energy Agency:
    • created after the 1974 oil crisis to co-ordinate energy policies.
    • under the administrative umbrella of the OECD Secretariat but managed independently.
    • Founded largely around the need for an emergency sharing system in case of energy disruptions,
    • It produces monthly Oil Market Reports and an annual World Energy Outlook
    • the 26-member IEA has a broad mandate
      • to consider means of improving energy supply
      • enhancing efficient energy use
      • integrating energy and environmental policies
      • opening dialogue between energy producers and consumers within and beyond its own membership.

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

The OECD: Associated Organizations (Contd)

  • Nuclear Energy Agency:
    • specialised agency within the OECD.
    • helps its 28 members to maintain and develop, through international co-operation, the scientific, technological and legal bases required for the safe, environmentally friendly and economical use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.
    • address issues like:
      • nuclear safety and regulation;
      • radioactive waste management;
      • radiological protection and public health;
      • nuclear science;
      • economics, resources and technology;
      • and legal affairs.

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

Some OECD achievements

  • Anti-Bribery Convention
  • Polluter-Pays Principle (PPP)
  • Principles of Corporate Governance
  • Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises
  • Anti-spam Task force
  • Co-operation programmes with China, Russia and Brazil
  • MENA Initiative on Governance and Investment for Development in the Middle East and North Africa
  • Export Credit Arrangement
  • Model Tax Convention

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33

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ITF212 – International TradeandInvestment

Some OECD achievements

  • THANK YOU
  • FOR
  • LISTENING

A. Onart || F. C. Balcı || M. Arslan || F. Kaya TheOrganisationforCo-operationand Development

International Tradeand Finance, IzmirUniversity of EconomicsOECD

33