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Unit Two Ecological Interactions. Chapter 4 Matter and Energy in the Ecosystem. ROLES OF LIVING THINGS. Consumers. Producers. Decomposers. Producers – Autotrophs. Organisms that make their own food from inorganic molecules and energy from the sun auto = self troph = feed

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unit two ecological interactions

Unit TwoEcological Interactions

Chapter 4

Matter and Energy in the Ecosystem

roles of living things
ROLES OF LIVING THINGS

Consumers

Producers

Decomposers

producers autotrophs
Producers – Autotrophs
  • Organisms that make their own food from inorganic molecules and energy from the sun
  • auto = self troph = feed
  • Photosynthesis – the chemical process that produces sugar from CO2 and energy from sunlight

protists – phytoplankton

plants – corn, rice, grass, wheat)

consumers heterotrophs
Consumers – Heterotrophs
  • Organisms that must eat food for energy
  • hetero = other

troph = feed

  • Herbivores – organisms that eat only plants (cows)
  • Carnivores – organisms that eat only herbivores or other carnivores (wolves)
  • Omnivores – organisms that eat both plants and animals (bears; humans)
decomposers
Decomposers

Wood ear

  • Bacteria and fungi that consume the bodies of dead organisms and organic wastes
  • Decomposers complete the cycle of matter in the ecosystem

Ex:

Fungi: wood ear, portabella

Bacteria: E. coli, Salmonella

Portobello

E. coli

Salmonella

trophic levels
Trophic Levels
  • A layer of the feeding relationships in an ecosystem
  • First level – producers
  • Second level – herbivores
  • Third level – first order carnivores
  • Fourth level – second order carnivores
  • Each level completely depends on the level below it
ecosystem structure
Ecosystem Structure

Food Chain-single pathway

  • A series of organisms that transfer food between trophic levels of an ecosystem
  • Always begins with producers
  • Decomposers supply the nutrients that begin the cycle
ecosystem structure1
Ecosystem Structure

Food Web-more complex

  • A network of food chains representing the feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosystem
  • Changes in any organism affects the other populations
factors that affect the ecosystem
FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE ECOSYSTEM

ABIOTIC-nonliving!!!

BIOTIC-living!!!

PLANT LIFE

BIODIVERSITY

ANIMAL POPULATIONS

HUMAN ACTIVITY

  • WEATHER
  • CLIMATE
  • SOIL QUALITY
  • AVAILABLILITY OF FRESH WATER
  • POLLUTION
  • CONTAMINATION
biotic factor biodiversity
BIOTIC FACTOR: BIODIVERSITY
  • The number of connections in a food web varies in every ecosystem (few species in the polar ice caps to many in the tropical rain forest)
  • The older or more complex food webs are more stable and are more resistant to natural or man-made disasters
abiotic factor bio magnification
ABIOTIC FACTOR: BIO-MAGNIFICATION
  • ***Pollution or chemical contamination that can be magnified in a food web
  • The concentration of a pollutant in organisms increases as it moves up the trophic levels in a food chain.
  • Ex: The pesticide DDTwas used to control the mosquito population. Fish ate the sprayed mosquitos and their larvae which concentrated the DDT in the bodies of the fish. Eagles ate the contaminated fish. This caused the eagles to have defective shells and eggs broke decreasing the number of eagles being born.
energy in the ecosystem
Energy in the Ecosystem
  • Ecological pyramids –show the relative energy in each trophic level
  • Energy is NOT a renewable resource
  • Energy, biomass or number pyramids decrease in value as you move up the trophic levels
  • This means each trophic level gets less energy fro the food they consume than the previous level
energy in the ecosystem1
Energy in the ecosystem
  • BIOMASS – shows total amount of organic matter (energy) present in a trophic level
  • Energy travels between one trophic level and the next in the form of food.
  • 10% LAW – lose 10% energy as you move through the pyramid (producers most energy! top of pyramid least)
chemical cycles
Chemical Cycles
  • 96% of your body is made up of four elements: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen
  • Elements move the ecosystem in cycles
  • Matter cycles repeatedly through the ecosystem
  • The amount of matter that enters and leaves each cycle is small
water cycle
Water Cycle
  • Water Cycle – water moves between ocean, atmosphere and land
  • Evaporation – water changes from liquid to a gas, moves into atmosphere
  • Transpiration – evaporation of water from leaves of plants
  • All of the fresh water we will ever have is already here
carbon cycle
Carbon Cycle
  • Producers (plants, bacteria and plankton) produce sugar using energy from the sun in a process called photosynthesis
  • H2O + CO2 = C6H12O6 + O2
  • Consumers use the energy from food in a process called respiration
  • C6H12O6 + O2 = H2O + CO2
nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen Cycle
  • Nitrogen is necessary to make amino acids – the building blocks of proteins
  • Nitrogen is usually found as a gas in our atmosphere
  • Bacteria help to convert nitrogen gas to ammonia and nitrates
  • Legumes (peas, beans, peanuts) have specialized bacteria in their roots that covert nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into nitrates which can be used by plants to make amino acids