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Computers and Funeral Service Advantages Disadvantages
Internet • http://www.njfda.org (NJ FDs’ Assoc.) • http://www.nfda.org (NFDA) • http://www.nfdma.org (NFD & Morticians’ Assoc.)
Personnel Issues in FS • Human Relations: “motivating people in organizations to develop teamwork, which effectively fulfills their needs and achieves organizational objectives” • Human relations are critical: • 1) attaining objectives of the firm • 2) effective public relations • 3) motivate and maintain personnel
Motivating Personnel • “motive”: something that causes a person to act • “motivation”: the individual internal process that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior • (Pride, Hughes, Kapoor, 2005)
Theories of Motivation • Frederick W. Taylor • Hawthorne studies • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Herzberg Dual/Two Factor Theory • McGregor Theory X and Theory Y
Frederick W. Taylor • interested in improving efficiency of individual workers • research led to “scientific management” • each job should be broken down into separate tasks • people work only to earn money • “piece-rate system”: employees are paid a certain amount for each unit of output they produce
Hawthorne Studies • conducted at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Clectric Company in Chicago • objective was to determine the effect of work environment on employee productivity • 2 sets of experiments: • 1) lighting in the workplace • 2) effect of “piece-rate” system Human factors are at least as important to motivation as pay rates….human relations movement.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Physiological Needs • Safety Needs • Belonging and Love/Social Needs • Esteem Needs • Self-actualization • Most employees in small business are motivated by belonging and esteem needs.
Herzberg Dual/Two Factor Theory(Motivation/Hygiene Theory) • Frederick Herzberg interviewed approximately 200 accountants and engineers in Pittsburgh • Feeling good and feeling bad about the job results from different sets of factors. • Hygiene Factors: maintenance factors • Motivation Factors: cause people to strive to do the best work
McGregor Theory X and Theory Y • Theory X: employees are lazy, shiftless, devious, unmotivated • Taylor’s scientific management • Theory Y: employees like to work and are willing to do the best possible job • human relations movement
Motivation Process • 1) determine objectives or purpose • 2) understand employee needs and wants • 3) communicate with employee • 4) integrate employee-firm interests • 5) provide auxiliary conditions
Motivation Strategies • 1) Extrinsic Motivation : tangible rewards • 2) Intrinsic Motivation: intangible rewards • Business owners should enrich their employees’ jobs.
Keys to Successful Work Motivation • 1) workers’ motives and values must be appropriate for their jobs • 2) jobs must be attractive • 3) effective performance • 4) work goals should be clear, challenging, attainable, and attractive
Keys to Successful Work Motivation (cont’d) • 5) needed resources should be provided • 6) constraints to performance should be eliminated • 7) interpersonal and group processes must support goal attainment • 8) personal, social, and technological parameters should be harmonious
Practical Motivation Techniques • 1) Care about your employees. • 2) Take responsibility for your actions. • 3) Be tactful with the people who work for you. • 4) Give praise when a job is done well. • 5) Foster independence in your employees. • 6) Be willing to learn from your employees. • 7) Be enthusiastic and confident.
Practical Motivation Techniques (cont’d) • 8) Keep lines of communication open. • 9) Give employees with problems help, not orders. • 10) Set standards for the company. • 11) Always let employees know where they stand. • 12) Keep employees informed. • 13) Encourage employee initiative, innovation, and ingenuity. • 14) Be aware of your own prejudices and biases toward certain people. • 15) Try to be flexible.
Total Quality Management (TQM) • “the efforts of all members of an organization directed to ensure that quality in the production of goods and services is achieved”
Maintaining Personnel • Direct and Indirect Costs of Turnover • Positive employer-employee relationships • Never take good employees for granted. • Twelve Guidelines for Criticism and Reprimand
Management Responsibilities • 1) develop employee participation • 2) manage change • 3) understand human relations • 4) create a viable and workable organization • 5) communicate effectively • 6) demonstrate effective leadership
Categories of Analysis • 1) Financial Analysis • 2) Market Analysis • 3) Operational Analysis
Professional Associations • Within Funeral Service: colleagues rather than competitors • With other professionals: facilitate communication and understanding • reflect social responsibility and service