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Psychology 3260: Personality & Social Development. Don Hartmann Spring 2006 Lecture 12: Peers II. Administration.

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psychology 3260 personality social development

Psychology 3260: Personality & Social Development

Don Hartmann

Spring 2006

Lecture 12: Peers II

administration
Administration

The library has a Writing Center (in conjunction with the Writing Program) on Level 3 “to help students at all levels become better writers.” (Phone # 587-9122 or just drop by the 3rd floor of Marriott in the Atrium area). Ben is your man.

If your group elected to write autobiographical papers, but a minority would like to present to the class, they are welcome to recruit from other groups. Please let me know who you are.

  • Reed Dow
  • Salem Honey
web discussion assignments due dates
WEB Discussion Assignments & Due Dates

WEB Assignment #

Group I II III IV

CSI 02/03

Growing Pain 02/06

Psyched 02/07

Agrrrression 02/08

Authoritarians02/09

Divas 02/10

Peer Pressure 02/13

Morally Distinguished 02/14

Raging Hormones 02/15

Bono 02/16

Girlie 02/19

Note: Each discussion topic closes at 5:00 p.m. two days prior to the stated due data.

panel discussion schedule
Panel Discussion Schedule

Wednesday…

Feb. 15th

Feb. 22nd Identity (Murquia et al.)

Feb. 29th

Mar. 08th

Mar. 15th Bullying (Borski et al.)

Mar. 29th

Apr. 05nd: Family topic (Kyle et al.)

Apr. 12th

Apr. 19th

Get you time period now, they are going like hot cakes!

handout summary
Handout* WEB

Date Date

11. Sup. Lect. #3: Method III ----- 01/11

12. HO: Autobio. Term Paper ----- 01/11

13. Lecture #4a: Method III ----- 01/12

14. HO: Completed Class Locator 01/13 -----

15. Sup. Lect: Term Paper ----- 01/13

16. Code of Academic Conduct ----- 01/18

17. Study Guide #2: Chpt. 2 ----- 01/18

18. Lect. #7: Skinner ----- 01/18

19. Lect. #8: Bandura ----- 01/19

20. Study Guide #3 ----- 01/24

21. Lect. #9: Piaget ----- 01/25

22. Lect. 10: Peers I ----- 01/27

23. Study Guide #4 ----- 01/30

24. Study Guide #5 ----- 02/03

25. Lect. #12:Peers II ----- 02/03

-----

*Handout date refers to the date the handout was distributed in class. WEB date indicates the date the handout should have been included on the class WEB site. A dashed line indicates that the handout either was not distributed in class or was not placed on the WEB.

Handout Summary
study guide assistance from the instructor
Study Guide Assistance from the Instructor
  • Based upon past experience, a number of you will wait until the night before the exam to prepare answers to the study guides. You should know the rules relating to requests to the instructor for help on the study guides:
    • I do not take class material home with me, so I am unlikely to be able to answer questions after 5:00 p.m. on the evening prior to the exam—or any other evening.
    • You are to use the instructor as a last resort after consulting with class mates about study guide answers.
    • The instructor will not answer more than 3 study guide questions per request and you are limited to 1 request per day.
supplementary references friendship
Supplementary References: Friendship
  • Bukowski, W.M., & Hoza, B. (1989). Popularity and friendship: Issues in theory, measurement, and outcome. In T.J. Berndt & G.W. Ladd (Eds.), Peer relationships in child development (pp. 15‑45). New York: Wiley.
  • Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W., & Parker, J. G. (1998). Peer interactions, relationships, and groups. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol. 3: Social, emotional, and personality development (5th ed., pp. 619-700). New York: Wiley.
  • Terry, R., & Coie, J.D. (1991). A comparison of methods for defining sociometric status among children. Developmental Psychology, 27, 867-880.
overview of peer relations ii lecture
Overview of Peer Relations II Lecture
  • Nature of Peer Groups
    • Developmental changes in peer relations
  • Friendships
    • Value of Friendships
    • Peer Lab findings (Hartmann et al.)
  • Cordinates with text, pp. 425-430 & 445-450
  • Next: Lect. #13a: Emotions I
the heyday 1970
The Heyday (1970-)
  • Descriptive studies of various ages and groups: Who does what with whom?
    • Chums, rejects, crowds, friendships; group structure (e.g., dominance)
    • Who are the major players: Asher, Berndt, Coie, Dodge, Gottman, Howes
    • Methods old and new: Sociometric assessments and observations; sequential analysis
developmental changes in peer relations the beginning
DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN PEER RELATIONS: The Beginning
  • Infants touch within the first 3 months of life
  • Around 6 months of age share toys, food, and the like with peers
  • By 1.5 years engaging in coordinated play with peers (see example involving Larry and Bernie on p. 441)
  • By 2 years, complementary roles (e.g., hide-and-seek)
  • With increasing age, interactions become more verbal and complex. By age 5, pretend play interactions become important
developmental changes in peer relations childhood adolescence
DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN PEER RELATIONS: Childhood & adolescence
  • Elementary school: Interactions become increasingly sophisticated. Some identification with groups, such a Brownies and Cubs (6-10).
  • Preadolescence (8.5-10): Chumships (Sullivan)
  • Early Adolescence: Same-sex cliques (Dunphy)
developmental changes in peer relations youth
DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN PEER RELATIONS: Youth
  • Mid Adolescence: Heterosexual cliques & crowds (Brown)
  • Old Adolescence: Dating dyads
friendships introduction
Friendships: Introduction
  • Definition: Reciprocal relationship with positive affect
    • Distinct from popularity
  • Importance
    • Source of social support
    • Conflict resolution skills
    • Preparation for adulthood
    • Can have bad consequences as well: Quality of friendships
  • Developmental Changes: Increasingly intimate and fewer in number with age
friendships introduction1
Friendships: Introduction
  • Definition: Reciprocal relationship with positive affect
    • Distinct from popularity
  • Importance
    • Source of social support
    • Conflict resolution skills
    • Preparation for adulthood
    • Can have bad consequences as well: Quality of friendships
george hartmann 1
George & Hartmann (1)
  • Relationship between friendship and popularity (George & Hartmann). 5th- & 6th-grade children administered
    • a rating scale sociometric‑‑and children were divided, by classrooms, into the bottom .25 (unpopular), middle .50 (average), and top .25 (popular)
    • Completed a questionnaire asking them to list up to 15 people who they considered to be their good friends
results of george hartmann 2
Results of George & Hartmann (2)
  • Children reported a mean ≈ 12 good friends
  • 80% of friends within a year of age
  • Few children had reciprocated cross‑sex friends
  • 70% in same school

% Reciprocation

Popularity Group

results of george hartmann 3
Results of George & Hartmann (3)

Who is chosen as friends?

  • 12% unpopular; 47% average; 41% popular
hartmann abbott pelzel george ward anderson
Hartmann, Abbott, Pelzel, George, & Ward-Anderson

Friendship Stability: Length of Time X Verified Status X Friendship Status

% Friends Lost

Weeks

hartmann et al
Hartmann et al.

Why Do Children Loose Friends?

  • Lack of recent Contact (33%)
  • Change in Interests (23%)
  • Negative Personality (21%)
  • Replaced by Other (21%)
  • Conflict (13%)
  • Third Party (10%)
  • Violation of Trust (10%)
pelzel barrett hartmann
Pelzel, Barrett, & Hartmann

Feelings about their most significant friendship loss

  • What emotions did the loss precipitate? Anger, sadness, & confusion
  • How strong were the emotions? 2/3 stated experiencing strong negative feeling
  • How long did the feelings last? More than a month!
summary of peer lab friendship findings
Summary of Peer Lab Friendship findings
  • Children describe having a substantial number of friendships
    • A substantial minority of which are not in their classroom
    • almost all of which are same gender
    • many of which are not reciprocated
    • Popular children are over-represented on lists of good friends
  • Friendships are dynamic—many are changing
    • How dynamic varies depending on how we assess
  • Friendship loss
    • Occurs for a variety of reason
    • And most individuals experience some pain with their most significant friendship loss
summary of social cognition lecture
Summary of Social Cognition Lecture
  • Scientific Investigations Of The Peer Group: Heyday (1970‑)
  • Issues In Peer Relations
    • Developmental changes in peer relations
    • Friendships
  • Next: Lect. #13a: Emotions
  • Go in Peace