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OUR SCHOOLMASTER. OUR SCHOOLMASTER. The Bible contains many evidences of its authenticity and divine inspiration, including: the abundance of Bible original manuscripts; the specific nature of Bible dates, times and names;

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slide2

OUR SCHOOLMASTER

  • The Bible contains many evidences of its authenticity and divine inspiration, including:
    • the abundance of Bible original manuscripts;
    • the specific nature of Bible dates, times and names;
    • the honest descriptions of the faults and failures of the Bible’s writers;
    • the amazing nature of Bible types and figures; and
    • the accuracy of the Bible’s prophecies.
  • No other religious writing or religion can compare with evidences such as these. Another powerful evidence of divine inspiration is the harmony between the Old Testament and the New Testament. The Old Testament law is our schoolmaster, to bring us unto Christ, to be justified - in our consciences – by faith.
  • [Galatians 3:24] Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.
  • Let us examine a few lessons from this schoolmaster that are not often discussed:
  • How the names in the Old Testament point toward the victory of Jesus Christ.
  • How the chronology of the Old Testament points toward Christ.
  • How the empires of the Old Testament point toward Christ.
  • How the grammar of the Old Testament points toward Christ.
slide3

OLD TESTAMENT NAMES

When Moses Wrote

[Joshua 8:31] As Moses the servant of the LORD commanded the children of Israel, as it is written in the book of the law of Moses, an altar of whole stones, over which no man hath lift up any iron: and they offered thereon burnt offerings unto the LORD, and sacrificed peace offerings.

  • The writings of Moses, including Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy and Psalm 90, have been in existence since the time of Joshua. Joshua led Israel around 1487 BC.
  • So, by the time of Jesus Christ, Moses’ writings about the first generations – Adam, Seth, Enos, Cainan, … Methuselah, Lamech, and Noah, had been around for over 14 centuries.
  • Let’s look at the names of these individuals, and what they meant…
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1. OLD TESTAMENT NAMES

The First Generations

  • Hebrew Name Meaning of Name
  • Adam אָדָם Man
  • Seth שֵׁתֿ Appointed
  • Enosאֱנוֹש Mortal (Sickly, Fallen Man)
  • Cainanקֵינָן Sorrow (or Fixed Possession)
  • Mahalaleelמהללאל The Blessed God (or Praise of God)
  • Jared גארד Shall Come Down (or Descended)
  • Enoch חֲנוֹךְ Teaching (or Dedicated, or Initiated)
  • Methuselah מְתֿוּשָלַח His Death Shall Bring (or Man of the Spear)
  • Lamechלֶמֶךְ Despairing (or Poor, Made Low)
  • Noah נוֹחַ Rest (or Comfort)
  • Now put the meanings of the names together in order:
  • Man appointed mortal sorrow; the blessed God shall come down teaching; His death shall bring (the) despairing rest.
  • Names recorded over 1,400 years before the gospel
  • was preached – declared the gospel message!
  • http://www.khouse.org/articles/1996/44/

See Genesis, chapter 5

#1

slide5

2. OLD TESTAMENT Chronologies

  • Jesus Christ
  • Abraham
  • Isaac
  • Jacob
  • (or Israel)
  • Noah
  • David
  • From Adam to Israel (Jacob) dates are tracked by age of father at the birth of his first son.
  • From the time of Israel (Jacob), dates are tracked by the length of stay in Egypt to the entering of the Promised Land.
  • From the entering of the Promised Land, dates are tracked by the rule of judges, and the periods of oppression, until the first king.
  • From the first king until captivity, dates are tracked by the ascension of each king to his throne.
  • From captivity, dates are projected by the prophets Jeremiah and Daniel to the baptism of Jesus Christ.

flood

many lines, billions of people

many lines, millions/billions of people

many lines, millions of people

But all dates can be determined from the Bible alone!

Old Testament

Zerubbabel& sons

(ruler, tribe of Judah)

Jaddua

(tribe of Levi)

New Testament

one person

slide6

2. OLD TESTAMENT Chronologies

a. Adam to Noah’s Sons

See Wonders of Bible Chronology by Philip Mauro

Adam

Call the Point when Adam Fell Year 0

Born 130

Cain

Abel

Seth

235

Genesis 4:8

1st murder

mentioned

Enos

Genesis

4:17-26

Enoch

325

Cainan

Genesis

5:1-32

395

Mahaleel

Irad

Jared

460

Others

Mehujael

622

Enoch

“Others” = “and begat sons and daughters”

687

Methuselah

Methusael

Genesis 4:19

1st polygamy

mentioned

874

Lamech

Lamech

1056

Noah

Jabal

Jubal

Tubal-cain

Shem

Japheth

Ham

Flood at 1656

slide7

2. OLD TESTAMENT Chronologies

b. Noah to Peleg

Cush  Seba,

Havilah,

Sabtah,

Raamah,

Sabtecha

(Nimrod)

Mizraim Ludim,

Anamim,

Lehabim,

Naphtuhim,

Pathrusim,

Casluhim,

Caphtorim

Phut ?

Canaan  Sidon,

Heth, Jebusites,

Amorites, Girgasites,

Hivites, Arkites,

Sinites, Arvadites,

Zemarites, Hamathites

Genesis

10:1-32

11:10-32

1056

Noah

Japheth

Ham

Shem

1558

Gomer Ashkenaz,

Riphath,

Togarmah

Magog

Madai

Javan Elishah,

Tarshish,

Kittim,

Dodanim

Tubal

Meshech

Tiras

Elam,

Asshur,

Lud,

Aram  Uz, Hul,

Gether, Mash

Arphaxad Salah & Others

1658

1693

1723

Eber & Others

1757

Joktan & Others

Peleg

“…the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided…” (Gen 10:25)

slide8

2. OLD TESTAMENT Chronologies

c. Peleg to Israel

Abraham enters Canaan 75 years old, or at 2008 + 75 = 2083, beginning the “Sojourn”.

Genesis

Chapters

11-36

1757

Abraham

Peleg

ZimranJokshan Sheba, Dedan 

Asshurim

Letushim

Leummim

Medan

Midian Ephah

Epher

Hanoch

Abida

Eldaah

Ishbak

Shuah

2108

1787

Ishmael

Isaac

Reu & Others

1819

Serug & Others

Nebajoth

Kedar

Adbeel

Mibsam

Mishma

Dumah

Massa

Hadar

Tema

Jetur

Naphish

Kedemah

Esau

(Gen

36:

1-43)

1849

Nahor & Others

Terah & Others

1878

1658

2168

1693

1998

2008

2168

Abram, or

Abraham

Nahor,

See Gen 22:20-24 offspring (Rebecca)

Haran

Jacob, or Israel

slide9

2. OLD TESTAMENT Chronologies

d. Israel goes to Egypt, and comes home to Promised Land

Genesis

30 thru

Joshua 3

With Israel and Joseph, the count of years stops going by ages of descendants for a while, and tracks events.

The Bible tells us Joseph was thirty when he stood before Pharoah, and that 7 years of plenty and 2 years of famine elapsed before Israel moved down to Egpyt at the age of 130. Israel died at 147, so Joseph would have been 17+39 = 56 when his dad died. Joseph died at 110, so that was in year (110-56) + 2315 = 2369.

Israel leaves Egypt after a 430 year “Sojourn”, so at year 2083 + 430 = 2513.

Enters Promised Land 40 years later, at 2553.

2168-2315

But Genesis 38 tells a special story about one son, Judah, and his twins Zarah and Pharez.

Jacob, or Israel

Reuben  Hanoch, Phallu, Hezron, Carmi 

Simeon  Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jachin, Zohar, Shaul 

Levi  Gershon, Kohath, Merari 

Judah Er, Onan, Shelah, Pharez, Zerah 

Dan Hushim 

Naphtali  Jahzeel, Guni, Jezer, Shillem 

Gad  Ziphion, Haggi, Shuni, Ezbon, Eri, Arodi, Areli 

Asher Jimnah, Ishuah, Isui, Beriah 

Issachar  Tola, Phuvah, Job, Shimron 

Zebulun Sered, Elon, Jahleel 

Joseph  Manasseh, Ephraim 

Benjamin  Belah, Becher, Ashbel, Gera, Naaman, Ehi,

Rosh, Muppim, Huppim, Ard 

slide10

2. OLD TESTAMENT Chronologies

From entering Promised Land until David’s Sons

Joshua 3 -

II Samuel 5

  • Pharez Hezron  Ram  Amminadab  Nahshon  Salmon  Boaz  Obed  Jesse  David (see Ruth 4:18-22)
  • Israel enters Promised Land, year 2553.
  • Joshua conquers Promised Land and tribes inherit portions 2559 (calculated by the ages of Caleb – from Judah - in Numbers 13 and Joshua 14).
  • Add years given for all periods of oppression, judges, and rests given in Judges and I Samuel to come to year 3023, when Saul began to reign. This adds up to 450 years (as also preached by Paul in Acts 13:18-20).
  • Saul reigned 40 years (Acts 13:21) up to year 3063.
  • David reigned 40 years, (II Samuel 5:4-5) up to year 3103.

SONS OF DAVID

The house of Nathan is mentioned in Zechariah 12:12. We later find Joseph descended from David through Solomon in Matthew 1:6-16, and Mary descended from David through Nathan in Luke 3:23-31. Solomon reigned 40 years until 3143.

Amnon

Chileab

Absalom

Adonijah

Shephatiah

Ithream

Shammua

Shobab

Nathan

Solomon

Ibhar

Elishua

Nepheg

Japhia

Elishama

Eliada

Eliphalet.

slide11

[Jeremiah 25:1] The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the people of Judah in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah, that was the first year of Nebuchad-rezzarking of Babylon;

Year 3521 is 525 BC, linking Bible history to secular history. Thus, Adam fell in 3521+525 = 4046 BC.

2. OLD TESTAMENT Chronologies

f. Solomon to the Captivity

3103

king

Solomon

Amon

3239

Joash

3484

Rehoboam

(Israel divided)

Amaziah

Josiah

3143

3279

3486

Jehoahaz

Uzziah

3319

3517

Abijah

(rules Judah)

3160

Jehoiakim

(Babylon

captivity)

3517

Jotham

3371

Asa

3162

3520 

3386

Ahaz

Jehoshaphat

3203

Jehoiachin

3528

Hezekiah

(Assyrians take north)

3401

Jehoram

3229

Zedekiah

(temple

destroyed)

3528

Ahaziah

(Athaliah’s coup)

3232

Manasseh

3429

slide12

2. OLD TESTAMENT Chronologies

g. Captivity to Christ

God links Bible history to secular history again. The year 4071 would be 4071 – 4046 + 1 = 26 AD, which was indeed the 15th year of Tiberius, if one includes the 4 years he co-reigned with Caesar Augustus.

Captivity of Israel starts

Jehoiachin

3520

Salathiel (Sheatiel)/Pedaiah

Captivity ends after 70 years (see Jer 25:11-12, Daniel 9:2): decree of Cyrus; start of 2nd temple

Zerubbabel, who builds 2nd temple

3589

3590

Luke 3: [1] Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene,…[21] Now when all the people were baptized, it came to pass, that Jesus also being baptized, and praying, the heaven was opened, [22] And the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a dove upon him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased.

Daniel 9:24-27

gives 69*7 = 483 years till Messiah

4071

slide13

2. OLD TESTAMENT Chronologies

h. So what do these chronologies show us?

  • Very few, if any, reliable written sources of chronological systems exist for human history earlier than 331 BC (Alexander the Great’s time) – except for the Bible, which provides unbroken date linkages prior to 4000 BC!
  • It might have been natural for Moses to write the lineages and chronologies of Israel, since that was Moses’ ancestor and nation. But why would he give special attention to the sons of Judah, Pharez and Zarah, since Moses lived well before David was king? Unless, of course, Moses was inspired by God, who knew David would be king centuries before.
  • It might have been natural for Bible writers such as Ezra to write the lineages and chronologies of the house of David up to Zerubbabel, since he was the governor who rebuilt the temple. But why would Zechariah 12 speak of the family of Nathan, a son of David who was not king? Unless of course, these writers were inspired by God, who knew that Nathan would be in the Luke 3 lineage of Jesus Christ centuries before.
  • Thus, the dates of the Old Testament Bible chronology track the ancestors of Jesus Christ!
  • The prophecies of Jeremiah give the length of the 70 year Babylonian captivity, and boldly link Bible chronology to secular history in Jeremiah 25:1. Then Daniel gives the number of years to Christ, which lands on the year of the baptism of Jesus Christ, linked to
  • secular history again by the reign of Tiberius Caesar in Luke 3.
  • The Bible shows itself, unlike myths or other religious writings, solidly set in
  • history with dates, names, and places – and they point to Jesus Christ.

#2

slide14

3. OLD TESTAMENT Empires - Introduction

Empire #1. The Head of Gold = The Babylonian (or Chaldean) Empire

(see Daniel 2:32,38)

Empire #2. The Breast and Arms of Silver = The Medo-Persian Empire

(see Daniel 2:32,39 and 8:20)

Empire #3. The Belly and Thighs of Brass = The Greek (Hellenistic) Empire

(see Daniel 2:32, 39 and 8:21)

Empire #4 a. The Legs of Iron = The Roman Empire

(see Daniel 2:33, 40)

4 b. The Feet of Iron Mingled With Clay

(see Daniel 2:33,41-43)

The ROCK that Destroys the Image and Grows Forever (Daniel 2:44)

slide15

3. OLD TESTAMENT Empires – The Challenge

  • Daniel lived and wrote around 500 BC. I believe he wrote this prophecy himself, and he thus gives a remarkable demonstration of God declaring the end from the beginning, since he wrote of events covering the next 900 years, to the destruction of the Roman Empire in 476 AD.
  • Skeptics, not being able to admit divine inspiration, claim that this prophecy was written by someone else later, near the end of the Hellenistic Empire (brass), who could tell that Rome was rising in power already.
  • The Lord Jesus Christ lived and preached during the early Roman Empire, and cited Daniel as accepted scripture. [Matthew 24:15-18] “When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand:) Then let them which be in Judaea flee into the mountains: Let him which is on the housetop not come down to take any thing out of his house: Neither let him which is in the field return back to take his clothes.”
slide16

3. OLD TESTAMENT Empires – The Surprise

  • Suppose – for the sake of argument – we temporarily assume the skeptics’ notion that Daniel was written in the late Hellenistic period.
  • The Lord Jesus Christ preached (about 26 to 30 AD) in the early Roman Empire (27 BC - 285 AD) and cited Daniel as scripture.
  • The Roman Empire did not become “divided” as described in Daniel 2:41 until 285 AD, when the emperor Diocletian formed the Eastern and Western Roman Empires.
  • The Roman Empire fell in 476 AD.
  • Thus, when Jesus Christ cited the book of Daniel, its prophecies were still being fulfilled!
  • The skeptics are wrong.
  • Daniel is a divinely inspired book.

#3

slide17

4. OLD TESTAMENT Grammar - Verbs

  • Jacob died in 1731 BC. Moses was born in 1613 BC, and talked to God at the burning bush about 1533 BC. (Dates derived from scriptures alone – no additional archaeology needed).
  • [Exodus 3:4-6] “And when the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I. And he said, Draw not nigh hither: put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground. Moreover he said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God.”
  • [Isaiah 38:18-19] “For the grave cannot praise thee, death can not celebrate thee: they that go down into the pit cannot hope for thy truth. The living, the living, he shall praise thee, as I do this day: the father to the children shall make known thy truth.”
  • [Mark 12:26-27] “And as touching the dead, that they rise: have ye not read in the book of Moses, how in the bush God spake unto him, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? He is not the God of the dead, but the God of the living: ye therefore do greatly err. [Matthew 22:33] And when the multitude heard this, they were astonished at his doctrine.”
  • [Romans 14:9] “For to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living.”
  • Jesus is LORD of all, and His death meant there would be humans living after judgment. God is GOD only of the living, who worship Him. Over a century after their burials, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob were alive and worshiping God, for God said, “I am the God” and not “I was the God”. Jesus Christ rested His argument on the tense of the verb “am”.
slide18

4. OLD TESTAMENT Grammar - Nouns

  • [Genesis 17:5-7] “Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for a father of many nations have I made thee. And I will make thee exceeding fruitful, and I will make nations of thee, and kings shall come out of thee. And I will establish my covenant between me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee.”
  • [Galatians 3:16] “Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.”
  • Paul, writing Galatians, considered the Old Testament to be inspired to the singularity or plurality of the noun “seed” – and so considered the Old Testament to be divinely accurate, and pointing to Jesus Christ.

#4

#2

slide19

4. OLD TESTAMENT vs. NEW TESTAMENT?

  • Does the God of the Old Testament (OT) seem to you to be different from the God of the New Testament (NT)?
  • What does Jesus say about the OT commandments? Do His NT teaching contradict God’s OT teachings?
  • Is He truly different, or has He revealed additional aspects of Himself in the NT?
slide20

What does Jesus say about the Old Testament commandments?

[Matthew 5:17-22] “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven. Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment: But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire.”

[5:27] “Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery:”

[5:31] “It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement:”

[5:33] “Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths:”

[5:38] “Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth:”

[5:43] “Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy.”

In the Sermon on the Mount, the Lord Jesus did not teach against, “it has been written” – as if He opposed the law. He said, “ye have heard that it hath been said” – and thus taught against erroneous man-made interpretations of the law which were popular in His day.

slide21

What does Jesus say about the Old Testament commandments?

[John 5:46-47] “For had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me. But if ye believe not his writings, how shall ye believe my words?”

  • In this statement the Lord Jesus Christ endorsed everything that Moses had written. In fact, He indicates that we need to believe Moses’ writings in order to believe His words!
  • That means Jesus Christ supports everything Moses wrote about creation.
  • That means Jesus Christ supports everything Moses wrote about history.
  • That means Jesus Christ supports everything Moses wrote about morality.
  • It also means that, if we do not consider true everything Moses wrote about creation, history, and morality, we will have trouble really being His disciples.
  • Wait a minute! Wait a minute! Do I need to consider Moses’ laws, such as dietary commandments, binding on me? No, not if you are a Gentile. Many of the commandments given to Moses were for ancient Israel in particular, such as dietary laws, holiday laws, sacrificial laws, and ethnic separation laws.
  • Then which laws are to guide the Gentiles? The laws God applied to other nations as well as Israel in the Old Testament, and that are taught again in the New Testament(see Leviticus 18:24-25, and Romans 1:26-27 for an example).
slide22

Is God truly different in the New Testament, or just more revealed?

[Psalm 145:8] “The LORD is gracious, and full of compassion; slow to anger, and of great mercy.”

[John 2:13-16] “And the Jews' passover was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem, And found in the temple those that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting: And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and poured out the changers' money, and overthrew the tables; And said unto them that sold doves, Take these things hence; make not my Father's house an house of merchandise.”

[Leviticus 19:33-34] “And if a stranger sojourn with thee in your land, ye shall not vex him. But the stranger that dwelleth with you shall be unto you as one born among you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God.”

[Mark 12: 29-31] “And Jesus answered him, The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord: And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment. And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these.”

slide23

OUR SCHOOLMASTER - Conclusion

  • Some of the things we have examined:
  • The names in Old Testament (OT) point to Jesus Christ.
  • The dates in the OT point to Jesus Christ.
  • The world history in the OT points to Jesus Christ.
  • The grammatical constructs in the OT point to Jesus Christ.
  • The teachings of the OT are consistent with the teachings of Jesus Christ.
  • The personality of God in the OT is consistent with the personality of Jesus Christ.
  • Finally, the commandments in the OT reveal me to be a sinner in need of a Savior - and that schoolmaster’s lesson makes the fact of the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ good news to me.

Ten Reasons that I Need The Savior.