The way I did this in 11-12 needs to be edited if I’m not going to be repeating all of my weakness of the west stuff…
Hansen Name _____________________World War II Period _________1931 to 1941 Unit Aggression and Appeasement Note-Taking Guide League Response ► 1c) German Challenges to the League of Nations Background Review - Weimar Republic , Great Depression Helps the Nazis , Hitler’s Election Hitler is a Challenge to the League by Definition Germany Challenges the League- Baby Steps Germany Challenges the League- More Daring ►1d) An Unholy Alliance- The Axis ►1e) A dry run- The Spanish Civil War Quarter Question- If a kid at school who was about your size and strength pushed you at lunch and said they would fight you unless you gave them a quarter and you had one, would you give it to them? Why or why not? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Part I- Totalitarian Aggression ►1a) Japanese Aggression Review- Japanese Anger at the West Japan Challenges to the League of Nations Japanese Justfication? Japanese Brutality in China ► 1b) Italian Aggression Italian Challenges to the League Italian Brutality
Chamberlain V. Churchill France ►Part III. A Line in the Sand ►Part IV. A Great Shock - _______________________________ ►Part II. The Failure of the Liberal Democratic Nations/ League of Nations aka ________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ► Review 2a) Liberal Democratic Nations have their own problems, The Great Depression, Pacifism , Sympathy for Germany, League of Nations is Powerless 2b) Each Liberal Democratic Nation Finds its Own Passive Way to Deal with the Totalitarians U.S. Britain and Appeasement Munich Meeting Appeasement
Review- Japanese Anger at the West • No racial equality clause in Treaty of Versailles • Japanese turned to their military to gain honor and respect • Need an empire to compete with western nations
Japan’s Challenges to the League of Nations • In 1931 the Japanese invaded Manchuria, … Why??? • Japanese couldn’t be a world power as long as they were dependent on the limited resources of an island
Japanese Justification • Asia free of European Imperialism! Asia for Asians! • We’ll Kick start Asian economies under Japanese leadership • But the reality… • Japan was more interested in replacing the European imperialists with… • …themselves…
Japanese Brutality in China • Racism between the Japanese and the Chinese… • Social Darwinism • Rape of Nanking… • Japanese massacred Chinese Civilians after the Chinese army abandoned the city of Nanking • China was in the middle of a Civil War, so it was vulnerable • China begged the League for help, but…
Italian Challenges to the League • Italy Was Bitter At the Lack of Land Earned in Treaty of Versailles • Hey, if they won’t give us land… • …we’ll take it. • In 1935, Mussolini decided to invade Ethiopia • Mussolini hoped to increase his own popularity with an easy conquest • Battle of Adowa Story • Ethiopians begged the League for help, but… • League places petty sanctions on Italy • Didn’t block sale of petroleum products to Italy
Challenges to the League of Nations- Baby Steps • In 1935 …rearmament and draft- in violation of the T of V • 1936 remilitarization of the Rhineland • a German piece of land next to France • forbidden to have German troops as part of the T of V • It was a bluff – Hitler later called it the greatest risk he ever took • German officers had orders to retreat if any shooting occurred
Challenges to the League- More Daring • Anschluss = union • Why this name?
1d) An Unholy Alliance Realizing their Common Goals (expansion and totalitarianism), Italy, Germany, and Japan signed an alliance They agreed not to get in each other’s way. They called themselves the Axis
The Spanish Civil War • In Spain- a civil war broke out between a democratic government and a Totalitarian One (Franco) • Hitler and Mussolini saw this as a good chance to test their new militaries • They sent in their new air forces and bombed Spain, including the civilian populations • The allies sent no military forces • Do we remember why not?
Guernica by Pablo Picasso Guernica = A City Bombed by the Nazi Air Force
Part II. The Failure of the Liberal Democracies to Confront Totalitarian Governments • Or- • Why didn’t Britain, France, the U.S., or the League of Nations) do anything?
2a) Liberal Democratic Nations (Britain, France, and the U.S.) Had Their Own Problems • The Great Depression • No interest in building up a great standing army or going to war when there is no money =
Pacifism People Remembered the Horrors of World War I
The League had no ‘teeth’ • When Japan attacked China, China (a member of the League) complained • League warns Japan to leave • Japan won’t… drops out of the League • League does… nothing! • U.S. in particular is pissed at Japan • Sphere of Influence • When Italy attacks Ethiopia… • More angry letters • Hitler… you guessed it.
If the nations want peace, the League gives them the way by which peace can be kept. League or no League, a country which is determined to have a war can always have it. • H.A.L.Fisher, A History of Europe (1938)
“If the nations want peace, the League gives them the way by which peace can be kept. League or no League, a country which is determined to have a war can always have it.” H.A.L.Fisher, A History of Europe (1938)
2b) Each Liberal Democratic Country Found A Passive Way to ‘Deal’ With the Totalitarians • U.S. signed the Neutrality Act • We won’t get involved in any European problems • basically a way of gearing up for another round of • …Isolationism
Appeasement • After Germany took the Rhineland and Austria, the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain- went to meet with Hitler in Munich • Neville Chamberlain-- Decided to Have a Meeting With Hitler at Munich-Hitler’s Promise • There is only one more piece of land that Germany wants- a part of Czechoslovakia called the Sudetenland • Give us that and we will never take another piece of land • Chamberlain Agreed • Appeasement- Giving in to a bully to avoid a fight
Britain (cont.) • Chamberlain returned to England to adoring crowds– “I have guaranteed peace for our time” • Bad career move? • Hitler was clever • The Sudetenland was behind the key Czech defensive line • Which means, if Hitler wants to take the rest…?
Winston Churchill • British Member of Parliament • critic of Appeasement • Said that if Britain had acted quickly, Hitler could have been stopped with little bloodshed because he was so outmatched in terms of military… • If he is given time, he will become too strong • Referring to the Munich deal reached by Chamberlain– “Britain’s leaders had a choice between dishonor and war. They chose dishonor. They shall have war.”
France’s Reaction • The U.S., Britain, and the League are doing squat to protect us… and who is Hitler going to come for first? • France! • Maginot Line • Kinda like the best trench system ever built • Makes a lot of sense after WWI
The Problem with the Maginot Line? • Warfare has changed. Offenses have regained dominance. • France just spent almost their entire military budget for a decade on a defensive line that will basically be bypassed without any fighting
Red= medium strength fortifications Blue= High strength fortifications yellow= intentional gap in the line
A Battle of Wills… (don’t have to take notes on this) • Britain, France, and Russia all publicly stated that they would stand by Czechoslovakia if it were attacked… • Hitler wavered… his generals were telling him ‘no’.. There is even evidence that they planned to remove Hitler to save Germany from a two front war… • The German nation was overwhelmingly anti-war • The Germans had a mini- Maginot line [ ‘West Wall’ (Siegfried Line)]. However only 13 German divisions could remain on the Western Front if there was an attack on Czechoslovakia to hold off 100 French divisions if the French were to attack…
“Hitler did not object to the League of Nations simply because it defended the Versailles settlement. If that had been so, he would simply have negotiated at Geneva to change in the settlement... Hitler saw world politics as a racial struggle - in Darwinian terms, a battle for survival. The fundamental problem, therefore, with the League was - in Nazi eyes - it embodied a wholly mistaken philosophy of international affairs. There could be no equality among states, for some 'are not worthy of existence'... There was no longer a cohesive value-system or an international society in the old sense; and it was a 'fiction' to talk about international 'rules'. • Written by the historian Mark Mazower (1998)
Churchill Quote “ The strain upon this one man and upon his astounding will power must at this moment have been most severe. Evidently he had brought himself to the brink of a general war. Could he take the plunge in the face of an unfavorable public opinion and of the solemn warning of the chiefs of his army, navy, and air force? Could he, on the other hand, afford to retreat after living so long on prestige?”
Part III. A Line in the Sand • A Few Weeks After the Munich Meeting, Hitler’s Troops Took the Rest of Czechoslovakia • None of the Western Nations backed up their threats • Hitler’s nature was now clear to everyone, even Chamberlain • Hitler now believed that the Western Democracies would never go to war over central European countries
Britain and France Drew a Line in the Sand • Belief that Hitler’s next target was Poland • Britain and France declared that they would fight for Poland… • But then… an earth shattering event…
IV. Nazi/Soviet Non-Aggression Pact • Why was this a shock? • Nazis and Communists were both Totalitarians, but they also hated each other. • Why would the Nazis do it? • Avoid two front war… • Why would the Soviets do it? • Aim Hitler’s army at the West • Gain time to prepare (remember purges???) • On Sept. 1st, 1939, Poland was invaded from the East and the West simultaneously. Britain and France declared war on Germany. WWII has begun.