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Ozone Therapy
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  1. Ozone Therapy The Role of Oxygen in Metabolism

  2. Biochemistry is Organic Chemistry • Occurs in living tissues and with a more finite array of reactions. A few of those to be addressed here: • Acid + Alcohol -------------------------------> Ester + HOH • HYDROLYSIS = “splitting via water” • Condensation = combining two reactants and excluding HOH • Transamination = transferring and amine (-NH2) from one carbon chain to another • Deamination = removal of the -NH2 from a carbon chain • REDOX = Oxidation-Reduction (very important in cellular respiration) • De-carboxylation = removal of CO2 from the carboxyl group of an organic acid

  3. Guide to Reaction Symbols • Hydrolysis • Condensation (dehydration) • Carboxylation • De-carboxylation • Oxidation • Reduction

  4. The Speed (and/or) Direction of a biological reaction • may be influenced by any one, or a combination, of the following: • Temperature • pH (H+ conc.) • Enzymes involved • Metabolic requirement of the cell • Concentration of substrate • Nature of the SUBSTRATE and REACTANTS

  5. Terminology And Synonyms: • EMDEN-MEYERHOFF = EM = GLYCOLYSIS (occurs in the cytosol) Reducing agent is oxidized • KREBS CYCLE = CITRIC ACID CYCLE = Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria) • ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM = ETS (occurs in the inner-mitochondrial membrane)

  6. KEEP IN MIND: • Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol • TCA occurs in the mitochondrial matrix • Overall process (RESPIRATION) is influenced by: • Availability of substrate • Metabolic requirements of cell (Demands of the TCA) • AVAILABILITY OF OXYGEN

  7. Glycerol, Fatty Acids, and Triglycerides

  8. Esterification Reaction

  9. Accumulation of KETONE BODIES as a result of incomplete fat metabolism and oxygen deficit. The Primary KETONE BODIES associated with KETOSIS: KETOSIS • Acetone • Acetoacetic Acid • Beta Hydroxyl Butyric Acid (ketogenic)

  10. REDOX reactions always proceed together: • Oxidizing agent is reduced • Reducing agent is oxidized

  11. Various expressions of Oxidation and Reduction OXIDATION REDUCTION • Loss of electrons • Addition of oxygen • Gain of Protons • Loss of H+ ions • Gain of electrons • Loss of oxygen • Loss of Protons • Gain of H+ ions

  12. REDOX Example • Oxidation of an alcohol to an acid and the reduction of an acid to an alcohol. (Aldehydes are intermediate products of the reaction)

  13. TCA - functions in the MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX • CO2 diffuses out as a waste • H+ diffuses to the inner-membrane space • Electrons (e-) passed along ETS to molecular oxygen

  14. Acetyl CoA enters the TCA and oxidized completely • CO2 - diffuses out • Electrons - ETS • H+ - inner-membrane space

  15. WHEN THE ENERGY DEMANDS FOR WORK BECOME SO GREAT THAT THE OXYGEN SUPPLY CANNOT KEEP PACE: • NADH is “loaded” and has no place to “un-load” (H+ accumulate) • Buffer systems can regulate pH up to a point • Eventually the ANAEROBIC THRESHHOLD will be reached • From this point the body goes into OXYGEN-DEBT (pyruvate becomes an H+ acceptor)

  16. The Oxidation of Lactic Acid and Reduction of Pyruvic Acid

  17. Ionization of an Organic Acid

  18. When the capacity to form lactate (ionized form of lactic) is exceeded: • Buffer system overwhelmed • H+ accumulate • Enzyme systems cease ----- outside their optimum pH • NAD+ is reduced to NADH (has no electrical charge) • NAD+ (“pack mule”) becomes limiting

  19. “Pack mules” (NAD+ NADP+ FAD+) • transport cargo (H+) to the ETS • They must “unload” to remain useful to the NAD+/NADH ratio

  20. NOW -- once work abates and OXYGEN BECOMES AVAILABLE • Liver converts lactic back to pyruvic (oxidation) • NADH can unload and become available to “reload” • H+ accumulation is reversed • pH drop is averted (acidosis avoided) • ATP formed from ADP • Energy is conserved

  21. IF OXYGEN IS AVAILABLE (by whatever means): • Pyruvate enters the mitochondria and is decarboxylated • Acetate (2-C) is picked up by CoAsH to form Acetyl-CoA then to TCA

  22. ELECTRON TRANSFER SYSTEM (ETS) • Designed to SLOW THE FALL of electrons (e-) to oxygen via SEVERAL Redox reactions rather than ONE VIOLENT REACTION

  23. The role of PEROXIDASES in the ETS (Preventing the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide)

  24. Adenosine TRI-PHOSPHATE (ATP)

  25. Formation of an Acid Anhydride Bond

  26. INCREASING THE AVAILABILITY OF OXYGEN: • Accelerates the regeneration of NAD+ (therefore recovery time) • Regeneration of ATP • Multitude of anabolic effects

  27. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: • Based on the foregoing discussion ---- it seems logical to assume that— • Any mechanism which can enhance the availability of OXYGEN to the cell would: • Delay the ANAEROBIC THRESHHOLD and the point of oxygen debt • Reduce the stress on the cells BUFFER SYSTEM • Reduce the wasteful loss of energy from the initial dietary source of carbon and hydrogen • Maintain the availability of NAD+ and therefore, improve the NAD+ / NADH ratio • Enhance the healing and recovery process in cases of injury or illness