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The Renaissance. WHI.13. The Renaissance. A. Rebirth of learning (14th-17th century) 1. rebirth or revival of 300 years 2. marked revival of art, literature, and learning 3. a bridge or transition between medieval and modern western Europe. B. Distinctive features of Renaissance

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the renaissance1
The Renaissance

A. Rebirth of learning (14th-17th century)

1. rebirth or revival of 300 years

2. marked revival of art, literature, and learning

3. a bridge or transition between medieval and modern western Europe

B. Distinctive features of Renaissance

1. began with rediscovery of Greco-Roman civilization

2. emphasized reason, a questioning attitude, experimentation, and free inquiry versus medieval concern with faith, authority, and tradition

3. glorified the individual and approved worldly pleasures—viewing life as worthwhile for its own sake not in preparation for the hereafter
4. focused attention upon worldly matters arising out of a secular (non-religious) society rather than the medieval preoccupation with Roman Catholic Church and religious affairs

5. featured great achievements in literature, art, and science

C. Renaissance—Starts in Italy because

1. center of Greco-Roman culture; Italy contained sculpture, buildings, roads, and manuscripts that excited curiosity about classical civilization

2. located on the Mediterranean; Italy had absorbed stimulating new ideas from the advanced Byzantine and Moslem worlds

3. benefited from revival of trade of Crusades; Italy had wealthy, influential people who became patrons (supporters) of literature, arts, and science

If you have a lot of money, what should you do with it?

  • Increased wealth increased banking and credit.
    • The Church did not like the use of credit because it was taking the power away from the clergy and placing it on the bankers.
4. leading Renaissance patrons were

a. certain Popes in Rome

b. wealthy merchants in Venice

c. the Sforza family in Milan

d. the Medici family in Florence

ruling families milan
Ruling Families- Milan:

- In 1277, Archbishop Ottone Visconti became lord of Milan and began one of the most famous of Renaissance dynasties.

-Embarked on territorial expansion

-In 1385, Gian Galeazzo made himself the master of the entire Milanese state.

ruling families milan1
Ruling Families- Milan:
  • Gian Galeazzo:
    • he was a patron of the arts:
    • He conquered many cities in northern and central Italy
    • He paid propagandists to extol the blessings of Milanese rule.
    • Died in 1402, during a war with Florence
    • On the death of the Duke, the country did not have a powerful ruler with heirs.
    • By 1447, Milan set up a republic and hired Sforzato protect them. He became its new ruler.
ruling the papal states
Ruling the Papal States
  • The Pope (Papal) was the head of the Church and the Papal States
  • Decline in power/authority/ respect due to some “bad” popes
  • Trade encouraged the use of credit and banking
  • This helped to secularize northern Italy
  • Letters of credit helped to expand the supply of money
  • Arabic numerals were introduced
D. Florence—preeminent Italian Renaissance city (Venice and Genoa were also key cities)
  • considered to be outstanding city of Italian Renaissance
  • Easy access to trade routes connected Europe with Middle Eastern Markets
florence venice and genoa
Florence Venice, and Genoa

3. Served as trading centers for the distribution of goods to northern Europe

4. initially these cities were independent city-states governed as republics

5. 15th century—under rule of Medici—a merchant family who amassed a fortune in wool trade and expanded into banking
6. Lorenzo the Magnificent (1469-1492) became the outstanding patron of Renaissance art

7. many residents achieved fame as Renaissance painters, sculptors, architects, and writers

8. attracted people from elsewhere in Italy, this city acquired many priceless works of art
E. Renaissance Spreads

1. from Italy to France—the German states, Holland, and England

2. Through religious, military, and commercial contacts

3. scholars from North traveled to Italy to absorb Italian art and

F. Humanism Illustrates Renaissance Spirit

1. literary movement that began in 14th century Italy

a. definition: concern with everyday human problems not religion

b. inspired by classical civilization—seeking, studying, and publicizing Greek and Roman manuscripts

c. revived interest, chiefly among educated people in literature and writing

1. Petrarch—(1304-1374) Italian studied classics, wrote in Italian and Latin, wrote sonnets, expressed romantic love and appreciation of nature
2. Pico dellaMirando(a)—(1463-1494) Italian scholar of law, philosophy, Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and Arabic, spoke in the praise of the dignity of human beings
3. Erasmus—(1466-1536) Dutch classical scholar, wrote “Praise of Folly”; ridiculed superstition, prejudice, upper class privileges, and Church abuses; urged people to think about reforms
4. Sir Thomas More—(1478-1535) English wrote “Utopia”—ideal country free from war, injustice, poverty, and ignorance
G. Vernacular replaces Latin in Literature

1. Middle Ages—Latin—language and literature of educated people and RCC

2. Vernacular or national languages used French, Italian, Spanish, German, and English evolved through everyday usage

3. writers used vernacular versus Latin

a. Dante—(1265-1321) Italian

1. various government positions and exiled by political faction in Florence

2. known as the “father of modern Italian”

b. Boccaccio—(1313?-1375) Italian

1. humanist, poet, and writer

2. collection of Italian prose—short stories “The Decameron”

c. Chaucer—(1340?-1400) English

1. admired works of Dante and Boccaccio

2. Cantebury Tales-pilgrims journeying to religions shrine at Cantebury

H. Invention of Printing Encourages Literature

1. 1450—printing with movable type invented by German Johann Gutenburg

2. more output and accuracy and less cost

3. encouraged literacy and writing

i renaissance literary achievement
I. Renaissance Literary Achievement

1. Machiavelli—(1469-1527) Italian (Florence)

a. politician

b. wrote “The Prince”—major work on ethics and government, how rulers keep power “end justifies the means”—early modern treatise on government

machiavelli and the prince
Machiavelli and The Prince
  • Based on Cezare Borgia, the son of Rodrigo Borgia (Pope Alexander VI)
  • Machiavelli observed the rulers of his day and came up with his own position on government:
    • An early modern treatise on government
    • Support absolute power of the ruler
    • Maintains that the ends justify the means
    • One should be good if possible, but evil if necessary
2. Cervantes—(1547-1616) Spanish

a. ridiculed feudal society especially knighthood and chivalry

b. Don Quixote de La Mancha

3. Shakespeare—(1564-1616) English

considered greatest poet and playwright of all time

sonnets—exquisite lines

plays—superb dramatic technique

d. Henry IV and V —histories

e. Comedies—Twelfth Night, Midsummer Nights Dream

f. Tragedies—Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Julius Caesar, MacBeth

4. Milton—(1608-1674) English

a. Paradise Lost—biblical story of Creation and Garden of Eden

b. Advocated freedom of the press

J. Characteristics of Renaissance Art

1. Influenced by classical Greece and Rome (especially sculpture and architecture)

2. Painting emphasized realism, attention to detail, and desire for perfection

3. Painters realistic style—recreates biblical events—also landscapes, portraits, and scenes of everyday life

4. Still important today—tourism—visit and sales

__________ Art

____________ Art

K. Renaissance artistic achievements

1. Donatello—(1386?-1466) Florence

2. sculptor, carved busts, statuettes, friezes for cathedrals (upper sections of walls

3. famous for life-size statue of St. George in armor

2. Leonardo da Vinci—(1452-1519) Florence, Milan, and Rome

a. “Ideal Renaissance Man”—versatile genius sculptor, painter, architect, musician, engineer, and scientist

b. Military engineering—improved method of loading cannon

c. Devised equipment for scaling walls

d. Studied anatomy—sketched a parachute (from study of birds) and a flying machine

e. Last Supper, Mona Lisa, self portrait

3. Michelangelo—(1475-1564) Florence and Rome

a. also Renaissance genius sculptor, painter, poet, architect

b. Sistine Chapel ceiling

c. Carved Pieta

d. Carved massive statues of David and Moses

e. Designed dome of St. Peter’s Cathedral

4. Raphael—(1483-1520) Florence and Rome

a. painter that captured tranquil beauty in many religious works

b. Sistine Madonna

5. El Greco—(1547-1614)—Greek settled in Spain

a. painted religious scenes

b. Assumption and View of Toledo

6. Hals—(1586?-1666)—Dutch

a. portraits of ordinary people and everyday life

b. “Laughing Cavalier”

7. Rembrandt—(1606-1669)—Dutch

a. greatest painter of North Europe

b. light and shadow, everyday life, and common people

c. “Night Watch”, “Anatomy Lesson”

L. Characteristics of Renaissance Science

1. built on writing of Greeks and Romans

2. developed method of observation and experimentation

3. challenged medieval superstition and acceptance of Aristotle’s theories

4. uncover knowledge of physical world

5. earth not center but sun center of universe

6. opposed especially by religion and popular beliefs

7. greater ability to improve health and control environment

8. established foundation for modern scientific progress—Scientific Revolution

M. Renaissance—Scientific Achievements

1. Copernicus—(1473-1543) Polish astronomer—established Sun as center of universe and earth as one of many planets revolving around Sun; disproved the Ptolemaic Theory

3. Francis Bacon—(1561-1626) English philosopher—new methods of observation and experimentation
4. Galileo—(1564-1642) Pisa, Italy, astronomer and physicist—demonstrated law of falling bodies, improved telescope, confirmed Copernican Theory
5. Kepler—(1571-1630) German astronomer and mathematician—said planets follow elliptical not circular orbit, findings helped explain paths of satellites today
6. Harvey—(1578-1657) English physician—said blood circulates through body, furthered medicine

7. Descartes—(1596-1658) French scientist, mathematician, philosopher—laws of optics, founder of analytical geometry—said “I think, therefore I am”

9. Leeuwenhoek—(1632-1723) Dutch naturalist—perfected microscope, studied invisible world of bacteria, protozoa, animal and plant cells

10. Newton—(1642-1727) English mathematician, astronomer, and physicist—calculus, laws of light and color, laws of motion, law of gravitation—Book, “Mathematical” and “Principles of Natural Philosophy”
northern renaissance
Northern Renaissance

A. Northern Renaissance

1. Growing wealth in Northern Europe supported Renaissance ideas

2. Northern Renaissance thinkers merged humanist ideas with Christianity

3. The movable type printing press and production and sale of books (Gutenberg Bible) helped disseminate ideas
B. Northern Renaissance Writers

1. Erasmus—The Praise of Folly (1511)

2. Sir Thomas More—Utopia (1516)