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Overview: Response to Intervention and SLD eligibility process. Kathy Pluymert Ph.D., NCSP January 24, 2012 National Louis University. What is RTI?. RTI isn't a new program… It IS: a system of school improvement starting with differentiating instruction in the core curriculum

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overview response to intervention and sld eligibility process

Overview:Response to Intervention and SLD eligibility process

Kathy Pluymert Ph.D., NCSP

January 24, 2012

National Louis University

what is rti
What is RTI?

RTI isn't a new program… It IS:

  • a system of school improvement
  • starting with differentiating instruction in the core curriculum
  • moving towards systematically using data to identify students the core doesn't reach
  • then identifying and evaluating supplemental interventions for those students
  • to ensure that ALL students meet ISBE standards.
the goals of rti are
The Goals of RTI Are:
  • To blend classroom teachers, specialists ( RCS, Special Ed teacher, Bilingual teachers) and other support personnel’s expertise, services and resources into one system that more effectively meets students’ needs.
  • Focus on prevention
  • Target students who are at risk
  • Use collaborative problem-solving to meet the needs of ALL children


why do we have to use rti
Why Do We HAVE To Use RTI?
  • Federal Legislation: NCLB/IDEA 2004 factors
  • Illinois State Legislation: District submitted ISBE required RTI plan in January 2009. All districts must document RTI starting in 2010 for all LD case study eligibility decisions
  • New Knowledge: We now have better information about the impact of effective instruction and a good foundation of research on learning. Federal and state government is holding educators accountable for implementing this to improve educational outcomes for all students


The Illinois State Response to Intervention (RtI) Plan

January 1, 2008


Response to Intervention (RtI) is “the practice of providing 1) high-quality instruction/ intervention matched to student needs and 2) using learning rate over time and level of performance to 3) make important educational decisions” (Batsche, et al., 2005). This means using differentiated instructional strategies for all learners, providing all learners with scientific, research-based interventions, continuously measuring student performance using scientifically research-based progress monitoring instruments for all learners and making educational decisions based on a student’s response to interventions.

RtI has three essential components: 1) using a three tier model of school supports, 2) utilizing a problem-solving method for decision-making, and 3) having an integrated data system that informs instruction.

the illinois state rti plan
The Illinois State RtI Plan
  • “ISBE believes that increased student learning requires the consistent practice of providing high quality instruction matched to student needs.”
  • “The success of all students toward the Illinois Learning Standards is improved when instructional and behavioral goals are frequently monitored.”
  • “…it is through the continuous use of progress monitoring and analysis of student academic and behavioral growth that proper instructional and curricular responses may be made.”

ISBE presentation: Kathy Cox, Mark Swerdlik, Christine Martin, 2010

new expectations
New Expectations:

We can effectively teach ALL students to meet basic standards in reading, writing and math though offering a multi-tiered continuum of differentiated instruction that varies in intensity

All students in the school should consistently receive academic instruction using research based materials delivered with fidelity

big ideas in rti core principles
BIG IDEAS in RTI:Core Principles
  • We can effectively teach ALL children to be competent in reading, writing and math
  • Use a multi-tier model of service delivery
  • Intervene early
  • Use data to determine student progress and see if programs are effective


so how do we reach all students
So how do we reach ALL students?
  • RTI has an impact on classroom instruction through the use a multi-tiered model of service delivery
      • Some students need a little more practice to learn ( re-teaching in the regular classroom)
      • Some need extra practice in small groups in addition to classroom instruction
      • Some need a lot of extra practice, different materials and more individualized instruction
rti a smart system structure
RTI: A “Smart” System Structure

Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual Students
  • Assessment-based
  • High Intensity
  • Of longer duration
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Universal Interventions
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive
  • Universal Interventions
  • All settings, all students
  • Preventive, proactive



School-Wide Systems for Student Success

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual Students
  • Assessment-based
  • Intense, durable procedures





how the tiers work
How the Tiers Work
  • Response to intervention “drives” decisions regarding intensity of instruction
  • Higher the tier, greater support and “severity of need”
  • Higher the tier, more frequent assessment
  • Increase level of support (Tier level) until you identify interventions that result in a positive response to intervention
  • Continue until student strengthens response significantly
  • Systematically reduce support (Lower Tier Level) as child achieves benchmark level
  • Determine the relationship between sustained growth and sustained support.
Another way to look at it

Intensive/Tier 3


Strategic/Tier 2


Benchmark/Tier 1


side view of rti
Accelerated students

Struggling students


Side view of RTI…

Grade level expectation

Iowa Department of Education

tier 1 core instruction
Core InstructionTier 1: Core Instruction
  • The district adopted comprehensive curriculum
  • Provided for all students
  • Screening and formative evaluations occur



Iowa Department of Education

rti components tier i
RTI Components: Tier I

Tier 1 RTI Activities:

  • Whole-class instruction using research-based curriculum
  • Differentiated instruction and small group re-teaching
  • Universal benchmarks to monitor student progress three times per year using curriculum based measures
  • Identification of lowest 25%
  • Comparison with teacher judgment and classroom assessments from curriculum
tier 1 documentation general education grade level teams
TIER 1 - DocumentationGeneral Education: Grade Level Teams
  • Using Screening Data for Initial Team Decision Making on need for additional data or intervention
  • Instructional PracticesDocumented
    • Fidelity to Core Instruction
    • Classroom based small group skill based focus
  • Parent Notification/Involvement
    • Screening/Progress Monitoring Data
    • If a child is getting “more”…

Pluymert 2010

regularly scheduled grade level or academic team meetings including specialists
Regularly Scheduled Grade Level or Academic Team Meetings ( Including Specialists)

The foundation of effective TIER 1 service delivery….

why review data by grade level or academic team
Why review data by Grade Level or academic team?
  • Allows for a broader perspective on resource allocation and student performance (particularly in selecting students for small group or individualized interventions)
  • Allows for a review of how well core curriculum is meeting students instructional needs in aggregate
  • Possible to disaggregate data to examine subgroups ( Coding students needs to been done to accomplish this)
grade level team meeting screening data
Grade Level Team Meeting: SCREENING Data

Who is making good progress in Core instruction and who is “at risk” or not progressing?

grade level data meetings
Grade Level Data Meetings


Grade Level Data Review, Analysis,


Intervention Planning

Define Tier

Cut-Off Scores

& Review



Create Updated


Plan and Progress


plan for

Tier 1 & 2

Group Students

According to

Tiers & Needs

Review Resources


Match to





& Match

to Students’


team meeting agenda
Team Meeting Agenda:
    • Prompt review of Screening/benchmarking data by Grade level or Academic Team after each screening in context of other assessments
    • Is Core Instruction resulting in 80% of students meeting benchmarks?
    • Using benchmarking data to develop flexible, skill based grouping structure and to see who is making good progress
    • Periodic data review to check student progress
    • Develop IPF form
    • Collaborative Planning for Differentiated Instruction
    • Collaborative Planning with Specialists to connect interventions and other supplemental work with core instruction
    • Coordinate Progress monitoring including data collection and data entry schedules
define tier cut off scores review triangle data

Define Tier Cut-Off Scores & Review Triangle Data

Using Screening Data during

Data Team Meetings

big picture questions from screening
“Big Picture” Questions from Screening

CORE instruction can be considered by the building School Improvement Team and/or individual Grade Level or Department ( junior high ) teams:

  • Is our core program meeting the needs of at least 80% of our students?
  • If not, which skill sets are the students having difficulty with?
  • What supplemental materials do we have ( or can we get from DOI) to address these skills?
  • What activities can we plan to provide more targeted instruction OR instructional time in the classroom for ALL students to build these skills?
  • Are there any subgroups that are NOT meeting benchmarks as a GROUP? If so, do these students have any unique differentiation needs in additional to supplemental instruction?
key concept in rti
  • Moving students to supplemental interventions ( i.e. Tier 2) is not a substitute for high quality differentiated instruction in the general education classroom setting.
how to use data to see if more differentiated instruction is needed in tier 1
How to use data to see if more differentiated instruction is needed in Tier 1
  • If more than 20% of the student population ( or subgroup) is not successful in Core Instruction, the problem is that there needs to be more differentiation and support in TIER I…
  • A school building can only provide effective Tier 2 for about 10-15% of the population
example of a core problem
Example of a “Core” problem



Spring 2006,


of students

will be


& likely

to meet



(115 cwpm).

Courtesy of Christine Martin, Indian Prairie School District, IL

cbm and data based decision making
CBM and data-based decision making

CBM is one piece of data that suggests additional diagnostic information or progress monitoring is needed

That said:

  • The CBM and MAP data should be looked at :
    • progressively ( first by grade level, then disaggregated by group, and then individually)
    • in conjunction with other student data to see if it “makes sense” with what the teachers know about the student…

Remember: the team, not the CBM score, is the decision maker…

Student Performance Review












Authentic assessments:

Anecdotal records, work samples

Mastery Measures:

Holistic Assessments

Read Naturally, Read 180

Standardized Norm-referenced Tests : ISAT, MAP, CBM

e.g., < 25th

Tier 2 Candidates

e.g., <10th

Tier 3 Candidates

WITH RTI : Schools Use Universal Screening Instead of Referral Driven Practices FOR EARLY IDENTIFICATION ( NO MORE WAIT TO FAIL)
one example reading instruction in 3 tiers
One Example: Reading Instruction in 3-Tiers

Tier 3 Instructional Reading = 135-165* minutes

Assessment- Weekly Using R-CBM


Tier 2 Instructional Reading = 120 Minutes

Assessment- Weekly Using R-CBM

Tier 1 Instructional Reading = 80 Minutes

Assessment- 3 Times/Year Using R-CBM

develop a plan for tier 1 interventions for each team
Develop a plan for Tier 1 “interventions” for each team
  • Who will teach the group?
  • When will it be taught?
  • Who will prepare materials?
  • Who will provide supervision to program assistant (if someone other than a teacher delivers instruction)
  • How often will progress monitoring data be collected?
  • Who will collect the data and enter it into AIMsweb?
create or update instruction and intervention plan

Create or Update Instruction and Intervention Plan

How are Core instruction and tier 1 interventions delivered in the classroom?

instructional planning form
Instructional Planning Form

Grade Level/Subject Area _______________________ Teacher Name________________ School Year ____________

Goal ___________________________________________________________________________________

10/03 Adapted from the U of Oregon

sample ipf first grade tier 1 interventions added
Student Name__________ Teacher Name________________ School Year ________

Goal ________________________________________________________________

Sample IPF: First Grade Tier 1 interventions added

10/03 Adapted from the U of Oregon

please remember tier 2 interventions should only be considered when
PLEASE REMEMBER:Tier 2 interventions should only be considered when
  • Students are not successful with classroom instruction that is
    • Delivered with fidelity to the curricular model
    • Differentiated appropriately to meet student needs
    • Provides accommodations and modification for ELL students and students with disabilities
tier 2 supplemental instruction
Tier 2: Supplemental Instruction
  • Instruction that is available for students identified as exceeding or not meeting core- learning expectations
  • Provided to smaller groups of students with similar needs
  • Research based/evidence based strategies selected
  • Targeted instruction in identified area



Supplemental Instruction



Iowa Department of Education

rti components tier 2
RTI Components: Tier 2

Tier 2 activities: SOME students receive everything in Tier 1 PLUS

  • Daily small-group instruction in addition to classroom based instruction (added instructional time).
  • Direct and systematic instruction in the core skills students need.
  • Monitor student progress once or twice a month using curriculum based measures
  • Those students still not meeting benchmark goals at preset time points are referred for additional problem solving and evaluation.


components of the cycle
Supplemental Instruction


Components of the Cycle
  • Focus on the identified student learning needs
  • May involve the use of additional resources within the classroom
  • May be changes in, intensity, consistency, and immediacy of feedback
  • May include a change in instructional strategy

Iowa Department of Education

supplemental curricula instruction
Supplemental Curricula & Instruction
  • Supplemental Curricula is used in 2 ways:
    • Fill gaps in the core reading program
    • Highly focused instruction some students need on certain skills
  • Need to be compatible with core curriculum
  • Supplemental Instruction:
    • 30 minutes a day; 5 days a week
    • Homogeneous groups of 3-6 students;20-25% of student population
    • Progress monitored monthly

Mark Shinn

components of the cycle1
Supplemental Instruction


Components of the Cycle

Given that all students are screened, some will need more assessment to determine why they are not meeting targets?

  • Usually includes a diagnostic assessment
  • Formative evaluation
    • Students included in formative assessments given to the class
    • Focus on measuring improvement in the targeted area of need
    • May include performance monitoring/formative assessment

Iowa Department of Education

tier iii




Iowa Department of Education

tier iii intensive
TIER III: Intensive
  • TIER III is intensive, strategic, supplemental instruction specifically designed and customized small-group or 1:1 reading instruction that is extended beyond the time allocated for Tier I and Tier II.


Iowa Department of Education

components of the cycle2



Components of the Cycle
  • Often includes different instructional strategies
  • Lesson plan prescribed for the individual
  • Provided to individuals or small groups of students
  • Often includes other support personnel

Iowa Department of Education

rti components tier 3 intervention
RTI Components: Tier 3 Intervention
  • A Few Students Receive:
    • Individualized Intervention Plan
    • Integrated instruction from all three tiers to strengthen the accumulated impact of the interventions and instruction
    • Interventions delivered to very small group of 2-3 students or individual students
    • Interventions focused on narrowly defined skill areas identified from the results of frequent progress monitoring
    • Interventions implemented with integrity (e.g. number of minutes/day and per week, materials used, progress monitoring and implementer) tied to an individualized intervention plan
components of the cycle3
Determine how the student interacts with the curriculum, instruction and environment

Determine the conditions under which the student experiences the most success

Plan regular, frequent analysis of learning growth and resulting instructional decisions

Record expected learning target

Record all instructional changes made to meet the target

Determine the student’s learning rate for targeted skill acquisition




Components of the Cycle
  • Every student is included in all screening and district-wide assessments
  • Diagnostic Assessment
  • Formative Assessment

Iowa Department of Education

TIER 2 or 3 is designed to be effective for students who need data determined levels of
  • Moretime
  • Moreintensity
  • Small group

To make determined levels and rates of academic growth

At what point in time for a student or group of students does academic progress show that tier 2 or tier 3 support is indicated?

Answering this question will require developing diagnostic academic assessment profiles and data based decision rules for starting and exiting tier 2 interventions

progress monitoring response to intervention will allow teachers to
Progress Monitoring Response to Intervention Will Allow Teachers to:
  • Obtain frequent feedback about student’s rate of improvement ( ROI) in comparison to
    • Rate of Improvement of classmates
    • Rate of Improvement of students in general education
    • Track student’s likelihood of passing ISAT per goal
    • Evaluate Student’s progress on IEP reading goals
RTI :More intense intervention =More frequent assessment












(Rate of Improvement)










possible outcomes shown in cbm progress monitoring
Possible Outcomes shown in CBM Progress Monitoring
  • Data shows positive growth
  • Data shows response to intervention, but further assistance needed
  • Data shows poor response to intervention
data show good growth
Data show good growth

National Research Center on Learning Disabilities

student needs more assistance data shows response to follow up
Student Needs more assistance: Data shows response to follow up

National Research Center on Learning Disabilities

student does not respond to intervention
Student does not respond to intervention

National Research Center on Learning Disabilities

criteria for evaluating response to intervention
Criteria for Evaluating Response to Intervention
  • Is the gap between slopes of current rate and benchmark converging? If yes, this is a POSITIVE RtI
    • Maintain intervention
  • Is the gap closing but not converging (e.g., parallel)? If yes, this is a QUESTIONABLE RtI
    • Provide more of the intervention
  • If the rate/slope remains unchanged OR if there is improvement but shows no evidence of closing the gap, then this is a POOR RtI
    • Go back to Problem Solving
Refer for Individual Problem Solving When Tier 2 and 3 standard interventions do not result in expected progress
  • Expected progress would be at a benchmark set for peer group or by master measure cut scores
tier 2 and 3 interventions and standard protocol approach

Tier 2 and 3 interventions and standard protocol approach

Why we consider standard protocol interventions first

three approaches to rti intervention development and implementation
Three approaches to RTI Intervention Development and Implementation:
  • Standard Protocol
    • Use data based decision rules to place students into group interventions. There is a menu of interventions that represent the most frequently occurring skill deficits that students in the building exhibit.
  • Problem Solving-
    • Using process of Problem Solving ( comparable to PDSA ) to address problems with unique solutions
  • Blended – some of both
individual problem solving only too much hypothesizing one at a time
What is the problem?

What is the problem?

What is the problem?

What is the problem?

What is the problem?

What is the problem?

What is the problem?

What is the problem?

Why is it


Why is it


Why is it


Why is it


Why is it


Why is it


Why is it


Why is it


Did it work?

Did it work?

Did it work?

Did it work?

Did it work?

Did it work?

Did it work?

Did it work?

What should be done about it?

What should be done about it?

What should be done about it?

What should be done about it?

What should be done about it?

What should be done about it?

What should be done about it?

What should be done about it?

Individual Problem Solving ONLY: Too Much Hypothesizing One At a Time

Batsche, G. M., Elliott, J., Graden, J., Grimes, J., Kovaleski, J. F., Prasse, D., et al. (2005). Response to intervention: Policy considerations and implementation. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Inc.

contemporary model
Screen EVERYONE to Identify the Problem(s)

Consider Need

Progress Monitoring

Problem Analysis

Monitor Progress at Appropriate Frequency

Provide Intensive TIERED Interventions

Individualized Intervention

Contemporary Model
supplemental rti process goals met
Supplemental RTI Process: Goals Met

Is student’s performance and/or needs within range of core instruction?

Formative Assessment Conducted

Is student meeting goals of supplementalinstruction?




Core Only






Iowa Department of Education

Is student meeting goals of supplemental instruction?

Use diagnostic information to identify and select strategies

Identify students with needs beyond those provided in supplemental instruction.

Supplemental RTIProcess: Goals Not Met

Formative Assessment Conducted




Individual Diagnostic Assessment


Iowa Department of Education

blending standard protocol and problem solving approaches




















Individual Problem Solving and

Possible Special Education referral

Blending Standard Protocol and Problem Solving Approaches



Amount of



To Solve


Intensive Instruction:

Core & Intensive

Program and individual

student progress

General Education

With Support



Small Group








Targeted Instruction:

Core & Supplemental Program

Benchmark Instruction:

Core Program

Intensity of Problem

Adapted from Heartland

an rti approach asks different questions

Bottom line: Does this child have a disability that qualifies him for special education?

Wait to Fail model – i.e. test and intervene when child is significantly below peers (2 or more years)

Looks for “problems” within the student that are to be “fixed”

Disability drives intervention

Intervention occurs with a specialist


Bottom line: What supports or interventions need

to be in place for this student to be successful in school?

Early Intervention model : Intervene when student is beginning to show signs of academic lags or behaviors that interfere with learning or social functioning

Problem is defined, intervention developed, and progress monitored using data

Intervention occurs using creative resources


An RtI approach asks different questions:
known problems with our current special ed system
Known Problems with our Current Special Ed System
  • Wait-to-Failand Lack of Attention to Prevention
  • Traditional Assessment Methodology that is Not Powerfully Related to Intervention
  • Enabling System that Allows General Education to Offer a Narrow Range of Instructional and Behavioral Options That Don’t Meet the Needs of Many Students
  • Results That Often Deny Services to the Students That Need It the Most

Lisa York, 2005

learner focused assessment
Learner focused assessment:
  • Assumption : The intrapersonal (within person) cause of educational problems is the most critical factor in determining appropriate treatment
  • We know now that this is only a part of the complex interaction we need to understand. Environment, Instruction and Curriculum are also critical
“Learning problems results from a complex interaction between several factors: Curriculum, Instruction, the Environment and Learner characteristics.” (Howell, 1993)


Why is student learning problem happening?

Also Requires an Ecological Perspective....






icel domains

• Content of materials

• Difficulty level of materials

• Sequencing

• Organization

• Perceived relevance


• Instructional philosophy

• Instructional approach or method(s)

• Expectations/objectives

• Clarity & organization

• Pace

• Opportunities for practice

• Duration of continuous instruction

• Nature & frequency of feedback

• Academic engaged time

• Classroom Management

ICEL Domains


icel domains continued

• Arrangement of the room

• Furniture/equipment

• Rules

• Management plans

• Routines

• Expectations

• Peer context

• Peer and family influence

• Task pressure


• Appropriateness of curriculum and instruction for student

• Perception of learning environment

• Academic skills

• Social/behavioral skills

• Adaptive behavior skills

• Motivation

• Medical Issues

ICEL Domains Continued
graphic organizer eligibility decisions in rti
GRAPHIC ORGANIZER:Eligibility Decisions in RtI


(*adapted from Iowa Dept. of Ed, 2005; FSDS, 2006)

big ideas of rti entitlement decisions
Big Ideas of RtI Entitlement Decisions…
  • Based on a Dual Discrepancy:
    • Educational Need (Level of Discrepancy)


    • Educational Benefit (Rate of Improvement)
  • About Matching Resourcesto make or maintain Educational Benefit based on level of Educational Need
  • Not that different from current eligibility practices

ISBE presentation: Kathy Cox, Mark Swerdlik, Christine Martin, 2010

isbe eligibility entitlement in an rti framework guidance document
ISBE Eligibility & Entitlement in an RtI Framework Guidance Document
  • State Special Education Rules and Regulations REQUIRE that RtI be the primary determination as to whether or not a student is eligible under the category of Specific Learning Disability, starting in the 2010-11 school year
summary when is a student eligible for special education
SUMMARY:When is a student Eligible for Special Education?
  • Significant gap exists between student and benchmark/peer performance
  • Response to intervention is not sufficient to predict student attainment of set benchmark within a reasonable amount of time
  • Student is not a functionally independent learner
  • Student demonstrates a NEED for special education services based on level of intensity

ISBE presentation: Kathy Cox, Mark Swerdlik, Christine Martin, 2010

primary considerations
Primary Considerations
  • Parent involvement early and throughout the process
  • Document determinant factors
  • Document exclusionary criteria
  • Meet guidelines for inclusionary factors
  • Follow the methods and collect data to keep a record of the process

Adapted from ASPIRE North Self Study Part D:

RtI Entitlement Decisions Regarding SLD

in an rti model you use the data you have been collecting for eligibility
In an RtI model You use the Data you have Been Collecting for eligibility…


If and when you need to make a student eligible for special education services, you are building your Comprehensive Evaluation as you implement Tiers 1, 2, and 3 and complete Standard Problem Solving tasks.

parent involvement
Parent Involvement

Parents should and must be involved early and often

parent involvement1
Parent Involvement
  • Regular Communication of all
    • screening
    • interventions, progress monitoring and results
    • problem solving meeting information
  • Getting the message out:
    • Open House/orientation nights
    • Principal’s Newsletters
    • Brief RtI Brochure for Parents when students are receiving any interventions
    • Expanded RtI Brochure for more explanations
    • District website under development
establishing determinant factors
Establishing Determinant Factors

How do we prove that the problem is not something else….

and is a learning disability?

determinant factors for all disabilities we must rule out these things
Determinant Factors For All Disabilities –We must RULE OUT these things:



  • Lack of appropriate instruction in reading
  • Lack of appropriate instruction in math
  • Limited English Proficiency
documenting appropriate instruction demonstrating that the curriculum is implemented with integrity
Documenting “Appropriate Instruction”: Demonstrating that the curriculum is implemented with integrity

ISBE Suggested waysto assess the provision of appropriate instruction

  • Principal’s observation of teacher performance through classroom visits and observations conducted during the instructional period for the targeted content/subject area on a regular basis ( observation check list or walk-through)
  • Checklists of integrity of instruction completed by teachers as self-check measures
  • Checklists of integrity of instruction completed among teachers as peer-check measures ( observation check list or walk through)
  • Completion of checklists by content specialists or curriculum supervisors working with teachers. ( observation check list or walk through)
use of instructional planning forms to document program fidelity
Use of Instructional Planning Forms to Document program fidelity
  • Instructional Procedures: includes the focus or skill being taught and the teaching strategy to be employed
  • Materials: includes specific materials used
  • Teaching Arrangement: includes who will be teaching and the ratio of teacher to student
  • Data Collection: includes assessments used to determine student progress
instructional planning form1
Instructional Planning Form

Teacher Name________________ Grade Level ________________________School Year ____________

Goal ___________________________________________________________________________________

10/03 Adapted from the U of Oregon

appropriate instruction repeated assessments to document positive student outcomes
Appropriate Instruction & Repeated Assessments to document positive student outcomes

ISBE REQUIRES progress monitoring:

“Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement at reasonable intervals, reflecting formal assessment of student progress during instruction, which was provided to the child’s parents --(34CFR 300.309(b))

  • Progress Monitoring Examples
    • CBM Measures (Aimsweb)
    • MAP progress
    • Formative Assessments
    • Mastery Measures from intervention programs
documenting interventions
What has the school done to increase instruction to show that the student has had “adequate” instruction to show progress?Documenting Interventions
  • Supplemental instruction and other interventions used to facilitate student achievement also need to be documented and are expected by ISBE as a part of showing access to appropriate instruction
  • These include any interventions over and above regular classroom instruction including work with a Reading Specialist, ELL teacher, etc…
  • These are held to the same standard of “rigor” as Core instruction
factors to consider in ell student performance
Factors to Consider InELL Student Performance
  • The school’s overall goal is to close the gap in the differences in performance across subgroups by increasing differentiation and strengthening core instruction
  • Student progress needs to be examined in the context of language, culture and social factors
  • As long as meaningful, statistically significant differences exist, we must use due diligence to ensure a culturally and linguistically fair process in SLD identification and compare students to an appropriate, matched peer group
additional factors to consider in ell student performance
Additional Factors to Consider InELL Student Performance

Factors to consider, but others will be included

  • Student rate of progress in CALP (Development of Academic English Skill) as demonstrated on pattern of ACCESS scores over time
  • Student rate of progress given instruction targeted to student CALP ( Is SIOP instructional methods and/or WIDA based instructional and assessment methods used for this student?)
  • Student rate of progress in comparison to other ELL students matched for:
      • CALP
      • Acculturation
      • SES
additional considerations for students in bilingual programs
Additional Considerations For students in Bilingual Programs
  • Rate of progress in Native Language instruction when matched to peers receiving native language instruction
    • Standardized testing measures ( Logramos)
    • CBM measures ( IDEL and Aimsweb)
    • Classroom performance different in native language instruction versus English?
additional criteria for sld
Additional Criteria for SLD



exclusionary criteria
Exclusionary criteria


What’s required to prove that the student “needs” special education

inclusionary criteria
Inclusionary Criteria

What data confirms a specific learning disability?

definition of a learning disability 8 areas
Definition of a Learning Disability: 8 areas

The child does not achieve adequately for the child’s age or to meet State-approved grade-level standards in one or more of the following areas, when provided with learning experiences and instruction appropriate for the child’s age or State-approved grade-level standards.

  • (i) Oral expression
  • (ii) Listening comprehension
  • (iii) Written expression
  • (iv) Basic reading skill
  • (v) Reading fluency skills
  • (vi) Reading comprehension
  • (vii) Mathematics calculation
  • (viii) Mathematics problem solving

34 CFR § 300.309(a)

Avg Classroom Academic

Performance Level

(Peer comparison)

Target Student

Discrepancy 1: Educational Need

(Current Performance Level)

Discrepancy 2:

Educational Benefit(Rate of Improvement)

Dual-Discrepancy: RTI Model of Learning Disability(Fuchs 2003)

student shows significant discrepancy when compared to peers
Student shows SIGNIFICANT discrepancy when compared to peers
  • Student’s achievement is statistically well below his/her peer benchmark ( 10th percentile or lower on district peer norm comparison)
  • Student’s RATE OF PROGRESS ( trend line or ROI on AIMSweb, expected MAP score, etc…) is well below expected growth rate for district peer norm comparison
  • Student needs intensive, individualized instruction beyond what is available in general education setting to make or maintain rate of progress in line with peer group
instructional need

Demonstrate that his or her needs in the areas of curriculum, instruction, and/or environmentalconditions are significantly different than that of his or her general education peers (Instructional Needs) and, in order to make educational progress, require interventions of an intensity or type that exceeds general education resources.

graphic organizer eligibility decisions in rti1
GRAPHIC ORGANIZER:Eligibility Decisions in RtI


(*adapted from Iowa Dept. of Ed, 2005; FSDS, 2006)