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ICT Environment: Internet Architecture, Growth, Governance and Security Overview. EACO ICT Conference on Broadband Access for All in East Africa 15 – 17 April, Kampala, Uganda. Michuki Mwangi < Mwangi@isoc.org > Regional Development Manager for Africa.

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ict environment internet architecture growth governance and security overview

ICT Environment: Internet Architecture, Growth, Governance and Security Overview

EACO ICT Conference on Broadband Access for All in East Africa

15 – 17 April, Kampala, Uganda.

Michuki Mwangi <Mwangi@isoc.org>

Regional Development Manager for Africa

founding internet principles
Founding Internet Principles
  • Open & Interoperable
      • The Internet is fundamentally based on the existence of open, non-proprietary standards.
      • They are key to allowing devices, services, and applications to work together across a wide and dispersed network of networks.
      • The Internets open nature is one of its key founding principles
  • Decentralized Architecture
      • The edge-dominant end-to-end architecture of the Internet is essential to its utility as a platform for innovation, creativity, and economic opportunity.
      • The decentralized architecture maximizes individual users’ power to choose (or create) and use the hardware, software, and services that best meet their needs.
      • If the Internet is to continue to be a platform for innovation and creativity, its open, decentralized nature must be preserved.
shared global resources
Shared Global Resources
  • IP Addresses
      • The fundamental identifier on the Internet is an Internet Protocol (IP) Address
      • Each Host connected on the Internet has a unique IP Address (IPv4 or IPv6) -
      • Inter device communication on the Internet is oblivious of names
  • AS Numbers
      • Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs) are globally unique numbers.
      • ASNs are used to identify a network under a single administrative control and routing policy
  • Service Names and Port Numbers
      • Are used to distinguish between different services that run over transport control protocols such as TCP, UDP, SCTP, etc
shared global infrastructure
Shared Global Infrastructure
  • DNS
      • Domain Name System (DNS) provides a hierarchical, scalable distributed lookup system that translates “easy to remember” names to IP addresses
  • IXP
      • Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) provide physical infrastructure that allow network operators to exchange Internet traffic between their networks by means of mutual peering agreements
  • NTP
      • Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a networking protocol for clock synchronization between computer systems
      • NTP uses a hierarchical, semi-layered system levels of clock sources.
open standards
Open Standards
  • Definition
      • Open Standards refer to standards that are publicly available and has various rights to use associated with it.
      • In most cases, Open Standards are developed through open and transparent processes that aim to draw consensus from the stakeholders.
  • Importance
      • Open standards ensure the compatibility and interoperability on the Internet
      • This feature is import for the continued growth and evolution of the Internet
  • Open Standard Organizations
      • There are a number of organizations that focus on Open Standards
      • On the Internet there are many standard organizations that play a role to name but a few IETF, ITU-T, W3C, IEEE, ETSI, etc
the ietf rough consensus and running code
The IETF : Rough Consensus and Running Code
  • Structure
      • The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is a international community of individual volunteers (network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet.
      • IETF work is organized in 8 Areas headed by Area Director(s) (ADs)
      • There are multiple Working Groups (WGs) within each Area. Each WG is headed by a WG Chair(s) and are defined by a charter
  • Participation
      • It is open to any interested individual and has no formal membership or membership fee
      • Participation is by joining any WG’s mailing list and contributing to the online discussions
      • There are 3 face-to-face meetings held annually in different regions
  • Standards Process
      • The IETF standard documents are referred to as RFC’s or Request for Comments
      • Not all RFC’s are standards some are information known as Best Current Practice (BCPs)
      • Any individual can submit a “proposed standard” known as an “draft”
      • When a draft is shown to be interoperable and widely deployed it is given the “Internet Standard” status or RFC.
      • A new standard can obsolete an older Internet Standard
capacity building
Capacity Building
  • NRENs
      • National Research and Education Networks (NRENs), Academic institutions play a critical role in educating students and business people.
      • They also prototype and demonstrate hardware and software solutions that benefit the Internet
  • Internet Community
      • Many Internet organizations and businesses encourage, train, and invest in Internet education and capacity building
      • Not-for-Profit organizations such as the RIRs, regional and national network operators groups (NOGs) , and the Network Startup Resource Centre (NSRC) and Internet Society (ISOC), ITSO, continue to provide free training for Internet engineers globally and in region.
      • Commercial vendors such as Afilias Limited, Alcatel-Lucent, Cisco, IBM, and Microsoft have established various models for imparting knowledge and training experts in their respective products.

Internet Governance

“Internet governance is the development and application by Governments, the private sector and civil society, in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programs that shape the evolution and use of the Internet.” – WGIG

the internet model
The Internet Model
  • The Internet is successful in large part due to its unique model: shared global ownership, development based on open standards, and freely accessible processes for technology and policy development.
  • The Internet’s unprecedented success continues to thrive because the Internet model is open, transparent, and collaborative. The model relies on processes and products that are local, bottom-up, and accessible to users around the world.
internet model
Internet Model

… describes the common set of operating values — such as open standards, freely accessible processes, transparent governance — shared among many of the key communities and organisations that have been central to the development and ongoing evolution of the Internet.


Multi-stakeholder Partnership

Alliances between parties drawn from government, business and civil society that strategically aggregate the resources and competencies of each to resolve the key challenges (of a selected issue), and which are founded on principles of shared risk, cost and mutual benefit. [http://www.unmsp.org]

multi stakeholder partnership1
Multi-stakeholder Partnership
  • Structures & Frameworks
      • Loose partnerships for exchange of knowledge
      • Formal structures (Legal Entity)
  • Composition
      • MSPs are comprised of global, regional and local stakeholders
      • They include civil society, technical experts, policy makers, industry representative, academia,end-users, etc
  • Roles
      • The different stakeholders bring unique value to the multi-stakeholder process
      • Finding the right balance and platform is important for meaningful engagement at the local level.
      • Local Internet development and growth depends upon the cooperation of ALL stakeholders
policy development in msp environment
Policy Development in MSP Environment
  • National Policy Development
      • National multi-stakeholder Internet policy development platforms are important for developing effective and development conscious national policies
      • The national platforms are instrumental in developing national positions needed for regional and international policy obligations
  • Regional Policy Development
      • Engaging with and participating at regional Governmental and Internet policy development organizations meetings is valuable for developing cross-border common positions
      • Regional policy forums include Regional Economic Communities, Regional Regulatory Associations, AUC, ATU, RIR meetings, Network Operators Groups (NOGs), ITU-SGs, etc
  • Global Policy Development
      • Engaging with and participating at global policy forums is important to ensure that the interests of the country and region are considered at the global level.
      • Global policy forums include IGF, ITU, ICANN, OECD, etc
challenges to the internet1
Challenges to the Internet
  • Scaling
      • Ensuring that continued global addressing and the routing infrastructure can keep up with growth.
      • Supporting the diverse uses and expectations of applications, services, cultures, and industries that the Internet supports.
  • Trust
      • The Internet must provide channels for secure, reliable, private, communication between entities, which can be clearly authenticated in a mutually understood manner.
      • The mechanisms that provide this level of assurance must support both the end-to-end nature of Internet architecture and reasonable means for entities to manage and protect their own identity details.
  • Multi-lingulism
      • Content - Attaining a critical mass of content in a given language is essential to attracting new and existing Internet users.
      • Tools and standards - Measures to ensure that use of a language online is not impeded by technology (or lack thereof).
      • Capacity building - It is easy to underestimate the degree to which capacity building is essential to enabling a sustainable multilingual presence on the Internet.
future of the internet
Future of the Internet
  • Scenario 1: Common Pool
      • Positive “generative” and “distributed & decentralised” properties.
      • Opportunity and growth abound, with no insurmountable barriers to entry for those wishing to take part.
      • Constant evolution and features a healthy ecosystem of interlinked network operators, developers, infrastructure providers, resource management organisations, etc.
      • The “win” for the Internet is that it remains able to react and respond to new requirements.
  • Scenario 2: Boutique Networks
      • Envisions a future in which political, regional and large enterprise interests fail to maximise the social and economic potential of a shared, global set of richly connected networks (the Internet)
      • It carries the weight of self-interest brought by factions seeking to optimise control in small sectors (political and otherwise).
      • It also suggests these fractionalised networks will continue to leverage the benefits of existing Internet standards and technology.
      • Each proprietary provider draws as much as possible from the common pool while giving little back.
  • Scenario 3: Moats and Drawbridges
      • Suggests the world of the Internet would be heavily centralised, dominated by a few big players with their own rules in “big-boys’ clubs.”
      • Conflicts would be resolved through negotiation, not competition.
      • There would likely be strong regulation as governments seek to impose some public interest obligations and perhaps even controls on the equipment users can connect to the network.
      • Much content would be proprietary and protected by strong intellectual property rights.
      • Governments would control the behaviour of networks and network users through legal mechanisms and sanctions.
      • All players would have close political links to their mutual benefit.
africa internet statistics
Africa Internet Statistics
  • Penetration
      • 167 Million Internet and 51 Million Facebook users in Africa
      • 29 Internet Exchange Points in 21 African countries exchanging an aggregate of 12Gbps
      • By July 2012, Africa’s total inventory of terrestrial transmission networks reached 732,662-km
      • 313m people were within reach of a fiber node and expected to reach 50% of population with completion of planned projects by 2015
      • Over 50% of African have mobile phones
      • In East Africa over 350,000 Kenyans have low end smart phones

Source: www.manypossibilities.net

  • Economic
      • Internet contributes an average 1.9 percent of GDP in aspiring countries—$366 billion in 2010 (Mckinsey.com)
  • Innovation
      • Entrepreneurship in Content, Financial and Back-office services
      • Mobile Apps and innovation hubs are contributing to Agricultural, health and education development
  • E-Government
      • Efficient revenue collection and management
      • Enhancing Service delivery
  • Internet Ecosystem
      • Policy and regulatory reforms are enabling the growth of the Internet ecosystem at both local and regional levels.
  • Infrastructure
      • Development of Carrier Neutral Data Centers Africa has only 84,000 square meters of raised floor capacity (39% of London’s capacity as at 2011)
      • Investments in the last mile infrastructure. Africa’s last mile technology is largely based on wireless technology
      • Lack of competition on cross-border interconnection contributes to the high cost of regional interconnection
  • Content & E-Services
      • E-Government Services are nascent
      • Research and Education content is underdeveloped
      • Coordinate efforts to find a standardized solution for M-health implementation
      • E-commerce is largely dependent on the implementation of enabling frameworks
cyber security
Cyber Security
  • Definition
    • Cybercrime is a crime committed using a computer or network or hardware device where the computer, network or device may be the agent, facilitator or target of the crime. (Norton Symantec)
  • Background & Historical Incidents
      • Reports of cybercrime date back to 1971 with the “blue box”
      • The first Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) was created in 1987
      • In 1995, Mitnick was arrested for breaking into various computers and downloading 20,000 credit card numbers or downloading proprietary software as a kind of trophy to prove that his hack was successful.
      • In 1998 Robert T. Morris, Jr., graduate student at Cornell University and son of a chief scientist at the NSA, launches a self-replicating worm (the Morris Worm) on the government's ARPAnet (precursor to the Internet). The worm gets out of hand and spreads to over 6000 networked computers, clogging government and university systems. Morris is dismissed from Cornell, sentenced to three years' probation, and fined $10K. 
      • In 2000 the "I Love You" virus spreads quickly by causing copies of itself to be sent to all individuals on the affected computer’s address book (by attaching VBScript executable code to e-mails) (May).
cyber security statistics
Cyber Security Statistics
  • DOS and DDOS
      • 1,875 DDOS attacks Daily (Arbor Networks)
      • Over 80% of the DDOS attacks are over HTTP flood
      • DNS DDOs are the least popular
  • SPAM
      • In Feb 2013 proportion of spam in emails grew by 12.8%
      • Spam accounted for 71.1% of emails by Feb 2013
  • Defacements
      • In 2010 there were 1.5 Million defacements
      • Most defacements are as a result of well known vulnerabilities
  • Phishing
      • 93,463 unique Phishing attacks in 1st half of 2012
      • Attacks involved 202 Top Level domains

In 2012 Total cost = $110BN

Average cost per victim = $197

(source: Norton 2012 Cybercrime report)

certs in combating cyber crime
CERTs in Combating Cyber-Crime
  • Definition:
    • It is an organization or team that provides, to a defined constituency, services and support for both preventing and responding to computer security incidents
  • Types of CERTS
      • Government CERT (Military, Police, Finance, etc)
      • Industry Specific CERT (ISPs, Banks, etc)
      • Academic CERT
  • CERT Services
    • Reactive
      • Incident coordination and Reporting
      • Vulnerability Analysis and Reporting
      • Artifact Handling
      • Awareness and Capacity Building
    • Proactive
      • Security Audits and Assessments
      • Development of Security tools
      • Intrusion detection and Penetration testing Services
cert strategies to cybercrime
CERT Strategies to Cybercrime
  • Technology
      • Implementation of new technology features to enhance security such as DNSSEC, PKI and IP Security
      • Continued monitoring of networks and analysis of incident reports
  • Collaboration
      • Stakeholder collaboration at both national, regional and global levels is key to dealing with incidents
  • Capacity Building
      • Capacity building help build the technical expertise needed to deal with cybercrime
      • Information sharing provides critical knowledge on implementation of best practices and solutions
national cert
National CERT
  • Objective
    • Serve as a trusted Point of Contact
    • Develop an infrastructure for coordinating responses to computer and network security incidents within a country
  • Function
    • Develop the capacity to support incident reporting across a broad spectrum of sectors within a nations boarders
    • Conduct incident, vulnerability and artifact analysis to;
      • Disseminate information about reported vulnerabilities and corresponding response strategies
      • Share knowledge and relevant mitigation strategies with appropriate stakeholders and partners
regional cert
Regional CERT
  • Objective
    • Promote coordination and collaboration between National CERTS in a region
    • Assist with the development CERT programs and activities in a region
  • Functions
      • Develop and share technical information, tools, methodologies, processes and best practices
      • Encourages and promotes the development of security policies
      • Provides technical assistance in the establishment of nation Incident Response Teams
  • Mission Statement
    • AfricaCERTis the African forum of computer incident response teams who cooperatively handles computer security incidents and promotes incident prevention programs.
  • Services
      • Announcements, Alerts and warnings
      • Incident Response Coordination
      • Consultancyand Training
  • Contact Information
    • www.africacert.org
    • project@africacert.org