Completing the Picture Canada After Confederation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Completing the Picture Canada After Confederation

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  1. Completing the PictureCanada After Confederation

  2. Northwest Territories • Americans (yes, them again) had purchased Alaska in 1867 and wanted more (Manifest Destiny) • The Hudson's Bay Company wanted to sell, but the British government made it clear it wanted it to be sold to Canada • The Hudson's Bay Company sold the land to Canada and the Northwest Territories entered Confederation in 1870

  3. Northwest Territories

  4. Manitoba • In 1870, Manitoba became the first province added to Canada post-Confederation after…

  5. Red River Resistance • After the sale of Rupert’s Land from the Hudson’s Bay Company to the Government of Canada… • Land surveyors and land speculators moved into the area, which resulted in… • Angry settlers in the Red River Settlement, who were upset that the government hadn’t consulted them

  6. Red River Resistance • Led by Louis Riel, the Métis National Committee was established to handle land issues • Riel established a provisional government to negotiate the region’s entrance into Confederation • Riel met with John A. Macdonald, who refused to negotiate with the Métis…

  7. Red River Resistance • Concern over the possibility of a civil war increased as the Canadian Party (Schultz) was armed and ready • Louis Riel captured Schultz and took him to Métis-occupied Fort Garry but Schultz escapes… • Schultz travels to Ottawa and tells of Scott’s execution before Riel is able to arrive

  8. Red River Resistance • Macdonald eventually heard the case and admitted Manitoba into Confederation, but with conditions • Manitoba became the fifth province, the small chunk of land carved out of the Northwest Territories • Macdonald dispatched troops to area to keep the peace and Louis Riel fled to USA

  9. British Columbia • In 1871, British Columbia became the next province added to Canada post-Confederation

  10. British Columbia • By 1869, Britain was encouraging BC to join Confederation and the following year a delegation travelled to negotiate • Asking for a road, Canada promised the colony a railway linking the colony to the rest of the country • Canada pledged that construction would begin within two years and be completed in ten years

  11. British Columbia • Canada also agreed to take over the colony's debt of almost $1.5 million and provide an annual subsidy of $216,000 • With little regard for the claims of the Indian nations in the colony, British Columbia entered Confederation in 1871 • Canada was now a nation that reached from sea to sea… or it would be once the railway was constructed!

  12. Pacific Scandal • In 1872, a railway contract was awarded to a syndicate led by Sir Hugh Allan, a Canadian financier • Allan was a large contributor to the Conservative party, and allegations of corruption arose the following year • Macdonald would resign and cancel the contract later that year, and the Conservatives would lose the next election

  13. Prince Edward Island • Prince Edward Island was next to join the union, becoming the seventh province in 1873.

  14. Prince Edward Island • Prince Edward Island were tempted by Confederation in 1867, but ultimately declined to join at that time • Canada was fearful they might join the United States and again attempted to convince PEI to join Confederation • The colony was eventually persuaded to join in 1873 after Canada offered help to buy land from British landowners, etc.

  15. National Policy • Introduced protective tariffs to keep American goods out of Canada... split public opinion • Encouraged settlement of the West by placing farmers on the prairies so they could produce grain for export • Complete the Canadian Pacific Railway, which would finally tie all of the various parts of the country together

  16. North-West Rebellion • Métis had moved westward after the Canadian Government refused to acknowledge their sovereignty • Métis asked for title to their land and financial aid to become farmers… both requests were denied • Government’s desire to build railroad forced the sale of western land for revenue and the scaling back of aid

  17. North-West Rebellion • In 1884, Gabriel Dumont headed to Montana to retrieve Louis Riel from his exile in the United States • Riel returned with peaceful intentions, drafting a new Métis Bill of Rights, but he was ignored by Canada • He was seen as a threat and Macdonald used that to generate public money for the railroad

  18. North-West Rebellion • Riel felt force was the only option, but he had support of just a couple Aboriginal groups. Still... • The Métis achieved more military battles during the conflict, but they were unable to sustain their momentum • Lacking arms and supplies they surrendered, hoping the government would hear their pleas...

  19. North-West Rebellion • Aboriginal leaders Poundmaker and Big Bear as well as Louis Riel were all tried for high treason • The Aboriginal leaders each received three years in jail… Riel was hanged dividing public opinion... • Though the hanging of Riel had a negative effect on French-English relations, it finally led to completion of railroad

  20. Manitoba Schools Question • In 1890, the Manitoba government passed legislation removing funding for Catholic schools • The same year, they passed an act which made English the only official language in the province • Given the ties between religious schools and language, these decisions upset a number of people in the area and elsewhere

  21. Manitoba Schools Question • The Manitoba Schools Question was a huge talking point during the federal election in 1896 • Wilfrid Laurier won the election based on his promises to find a solution to the problem • He came up with a compromise where French would be used in schools that had a minimum of 10 French-speaking students

  22. Wilfrid Laurier • In addition to his work at finding a compromise to the Manitoba School Question, Wilfrid Laurier... • Led Canada through a period of rapid growth through immigration and industrialization • The first francophone Prime Minister, Laurier is often considered to be one of Canada’s greatest leaders

  23. Yukon • The discovery of gold in 1896 and the Klondike Gold Rush was the event that resulted in the formation of the Yukon • An estimated 30,000 to 40,000 people, many of them Americans (yes, them again) flooded the region by 1898 • The influx of Americans convinced the Canadian government to create a separate territory to better control the situation

  24. Alberta • Alberta and Saskatchewan both joined the union in 1905, forged out of the North-West Territories.

  25. Alberta • Alberta was a district of the North-West Territories in the early-1900s, but local leaders wanted provincial status • Frederick Haultain pushed for a large province encompassing both Alberta and Saskatchewan • Laurier saw a single province as one with too much power and chose to add the two separate provinces in 1905

  26. Saskatchewan • Saskatchewan joined the union along with Alberta in 1905, forged out of the North-West Territories (you may have heard this before).

  27. Saskatchewan • The population growth in the North-West Territories had led to calls for the establishment of a separate province • Frederick Haultain felt they should be able to collect taxes to pay for schools and other services the population demanded • In 1905, districts of Assiniboia, Athabasca and Saskatchewan amalgamated and joined Alberta in Confederation

  28. Newfoundland • Newfoundland was the last province to join Confederation, doing so in 1949

  29. Newfoundland • The people of Newfound were divided on the idea of Confederation for many years • Canada offered to help develop the colony as Britain no longer wanted to support Newfoundland • Joey Smallwood was instrumental in convincing the people to vote in favour of joining Canada, which they did in 1949

  30. Nunavut • Nunavut was born out of Inuit desire to gain control over their own lands and resources in the Arctic • In years past, decisions had been made about Confederation and the use of their lands without consultation • They negotiated to regain control of their land as a territory joined to Canadaand became Canada’s third territory in 1999