Northwest Territories • Americans (yes, them again) had purchased Alaska in 1867 and wanted more (Manifest Destiny) • The Hudson's Bay Company wanted to sell, but the British government made it clear it wanted it to be sold to Canada • The Hudson's Bay Company sold the land to Canada and the Northwest Territories entered Confederation in 1870
Manitoba • In 1870, Manitoba became the first province added to Canada post-Confederation after…
Red River Resistance • After the sale of Rupert’s Land from the Hudson’s Bay Company to the Government of Canada… • Land surveyors and land speculators moved into the area, which resulted in… • Angry settlers in the Red River Settlement, who were upset that the government hadn’t consulted them
Red River Resistance • Led by Louis Riel, the Métis National Committee was established to handle land issues • Riel established a provisional government to negotiate the region’s entrance into Confederation • Riel met with John A. Macdonald, who refused to negotiate with the Métis…
Red River Resistance • Concern over the possibility of a civil war increased as the Canadian Party (Schultz) was armed and ready • Louis Riel captured Schultz and took him to Métis-occupied Fort Garry but Schultz escapes… • Schultz travels to Ottawa and tells of Scott’s execution before Riel is able to arrive
Red River Resistance • Macdonald eventually heard the case and admitted Manitoba into Confederation, but with conditions • Manitoba became the fifth province, the small chunk of land carved out of the Northwest Territories • Macdonald dispatched troops to area to keep the peace and Louis Riel fled to USA
British Columbia • In 1871, British Columbia became the next province added to Canada post-Confederation
British Columbia • By 1869, Britain was encouraging BC to join Confederation and the following year a delegation travelled to negotiate • Asking for a road, Canada promised the colony a railway linking the colony to the rest of the country • Canada pledged that construction would begin within two years and be completed in ten years
British Columbia • Canada also agreed to take over the colony's debt of almost $1.5 million and provide an annual subsidy of $216,000 • With little regard for the claims of the Indian nations in the colony, British Columbia entered Confederation in 1871 • Canada was now a nation that reached from sea to sea… or it would be once the railway was constructed!
Pacific Scandal • In 1872, a railway contract was awarded to a syndicate led by Sir Hugh Allan, a Canadian financier • Allan was a large contributor to the Conservative party, and allegations of corruption arose the following year • Macdonald would resign and cancel the contract later that year, and the Conservatives would lose the next election
Prince Edward Island • Prince Edward Island was next to join the union, becoming the seventh province in 1873.
Prince Edward Island • Prince Edward Island were tempted by Confederation in 1867, but ultimately declined to join at that time • Canada was fearful they might join the United States and again attempted to convince PEI to join Confederation • The colony was eventually persuaded to join in 1873 after Canada offered help to buy land from British landowners, etc.
National Policy • Introduced protective tariffs to keep American goods out of Canada... split public opinion • Encouraged settlement of the West by placing farmers on the prairies so they could produce grain for export • Complete the Canadian Pacific Railway, which would finally tie all of the various parts of the country together
North-West Rebellion • Métis had moved westward after the Canadian Government refused to acknowledge their sovereignty • Métis asked for title to their land and financial aid to become farmers… both requests were denied • Government’s desire to build railroad forced the sale of western land for revenue and the scaling back of aid
North-West Rebellion • In 1884, Gabriel Dumont headed to Montana to retrieve Louis Riel from his exile in the United States • Riel returned with peaceful intentions, drafting a new Métis Bill of Rights, but he was ignored by Canada • He was seen as a threat and Macdonald used that to generate public money for the railroad
North-West Rebellion • Riel felt force was the only option, but he had support of just a couple Aboriginal groups. Still... • The Métis achieved more military battles during the conflict, but they were unable to sustain their momentum • Lacking arms and supplies they surrendered, hoping the government would hear their pleas...
North-West Rebellion • Aboriginal leaders Poundmaker and Big Bear as well as Louis Riel were all tried for high treason • The Aboriginal leaders each received three years in jail… Riel was hanged dividing public opinion... • Though the hanging of Riel had a negative effect on French-English relations, it finally led to completion of railroad
Manitoba Schools Question • In 1890, the Manitoba government passed legislation removing funding for Catholic schools • The same year, they passed an act which made English the only official language in the province • Given the ties between religious schools and language, these decisions upset a number of people in the area and elsewhere
Manitoba Schools Question • The Manitoba Schools Question was a huge talking point during the federal election in 1896 • Wilfrid Laurier won the election based on his promises to find a solution to the problem • He came up with a compromise where French would be used in schools that had a minimum of 10 French-speaking students
Wilfrid Laurier • In addition to his work at finding a compromise to the Manitoba School Question, Wilfrid Laurier... • Led Canada through a period of rapid growth through immigration and industrialization • The first francophone Prime Minister, Laurier is often considered to be one of Canada’s greatest leaders
Yukon • The discovery of gold in 1896 and the Klondike Gold Rush was the event that resulted in the formation of the Yukon • An estimated 30,000 to 40,000 people, many of them Americans (yes, them again) flooded the region by 1898 • The influx of Americans convinced the Canadian government to create a separate territory to better control the situation
Alberta • Alberta and Saskatchewan both joined the union in 1905, forged out of the North-West Territories.
Alberta • Alberta was a district of the North-West Territories in the early-1900s, but local leaders wanted provincial status • Frederick Haultain pushed for a large province encompassing both Alberta and Saskatchewan • Laurier saw a single province as one with too much power and chose to add the two separate provinces in 1905
Saskatchewan • Saskatchewan joined the union along with Alberta in 1905, forged out of the North-West Territories (you may have heard this before).
Saskatchewan • The population growth in the North-West Territories had led to calls for the establishment of a separate province • Frederick Haultain felt they should be able to collect taxes to pay for schools and other services the population demanded • In 1905, districts of Assiniboia, Athabasca and Saskatchewan amalgamated and joined Alberta in Confederation
Newfoundland • Newfoundland was the last province to join Confederation, doing so in 1949
Newfoundland • The people of Newfound were divided on the idea of Confederation for many years • Canada offered to help develop the colony as Britain no longer wanted to support Newfoundland • Joey Smallwood was instrumental in convincing the people to vote in favour of joining Canada, which they did in 1949
Nunavut • Nunavut was born out of Inuit desire to gain control over their own lands and resources in the Arctic • In years past, decisions had been made about Confederation and the use of their lands without consultation • They negotiated to regain control of their land as a territory joined to Canadaand became Canada’s third territory in 1999