Sabin Environmental Prize Accounting & Projections February 26, 2010
Sabin Application Requirements • One year of financial projections • Explanation of use of prize money
Workshop Topics • How to do financial projections • Figure out how much $ you need
Purpose of Financial Projections • Can the business make money? • How much $ do you need? > to start? > to grow? • Have you thought about the details?
The Details • Sales: Price? First sale? How do sales grow? What makes them grow? • Costs: What do you need to make the product? Sell it? Who will you hire? When? Do you buy ads? Make brochures? • More costs: Where will your office be? Costs of running it? Who does the hiring? How do you pay people? Health insurance?
Projection Milestones In the life of a business: 1. Achieve some sales 2. Reach cash flow break-even 3. Exit -- for investors
Example: Timing of Milestones Exit Sales Break Even
Types of Statements • Income Statement • Balance Sheet • Sources and Uses of Funds .
Income Statement Definitions Revenues: > $ value exchanged > for products or services Expenses: > $ value of resources used > to earn those revenues
Expenses: Examples Divide expenses into: Direct Costs/Expenses and Indirect Costs/Expenses
Direct Costs or “Cost of Goods Sold” Direct Costs Materials Labor Packaging Costs of Making a Product/Service Inspection Shipping Customer Service Revenues – Cost of Goods Sold = Gross Profit
Operating Expenses (Sales & Marketing, General & Administrative, R&D or “S,G&A”) Other Costs – to run the Company Indirect Costs Rent Accounting Insurance Sales Expense CEO IT, HR, Legal, etc. Gross Profit – Operating Costs = EBITDA
Key Measure -- for Startups EBITDA Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation & Amortization Measures -- earning power E - BIT - DA 17
Net Income (Loss) EBITDA minus: • Depreciation • Interest expense • Taxes • “One time events”
Depreciation Property, Plant & Equipment (Fixed Assets) • Long term assets of the company • Not for sale • Things that have or create value – over time
Examples of PP&E Buildings Factories Vehicles Equipment Computers Furniture
Depreciation • Fixed Assets provides valueover time • Also, wears out over time • Depreciationspreads these costs • Over their useful life
Example: A Company buys a wind turbine to generate its electricity. It pays $750,000 for the turbine. It expects the turbine to: • Last for 25 years, • Wear out evenly, and • Then be worth $0
Example: What is the “depreciation” of this asset? • $750,000/25 years = $30,000 year • $30,000 = annual depreciation expense This is called: “straight line” depreciation
Quick Review What Gets Depreciated? Green Wind Co. sells and installs wind turbines for customers. Are the following: Direct costs, Indirect Costs or Property, Plant & Equipment? Wind turbine? Delivery trucks? Finance staff? Installation? Sales people? Billing IT system?
Start “ Big Picture ” > People ? > Machines ? > Advertising? > Locations? • What are the key sales drivers ?
Example > How many sales calls per month? > Success rate of sales calls? > Time till sale is completed? > Average price of a sale? • Sales require a sales force
The Product • Fresh farmed tilapia fillets • “Seafood Safe” and Organic • 100% organic feed • Purified and filtered re-circulated water
Evidence of Opportunity - over 3 years: • US seafood consumption up 12% - $12 billion • US tilapia consumption up 110% - $400 million • Demand for organic meat & fish up 120% Over 70% of Americans would by organic seafood if available; 60% ‘strongly prefer’ domestic
Customers • Suppliers of restaurants, grocery & fish stores • Also, Trader Joe’s, Whole Foods
Talking to customers: • 450 chefs and 150 retailers • Most prefer environmentally friendly fish • Local restaurant owner: “customers care” • Distributor: “Not enough good farms” • EcoFish: I will buy all you have to sell
Think “ Big Picture ” > Systems that grow fish • The Good Fish key sales driver:
Sales depend on “Pod Systems” • A Pod System produces 50,000 lbs fish/yr • Fresh organic tilapia sells for $5.63/lb • One Pod System in Year 1 • Couple of months to get going • Couple of months to ramp up
First 12 Month’s Projections Do this for 12 months
First Year 35 197
Next Step -- Costs Direct Costs (Cost of Goods Sold) – materials, labor, delivery Operating costs – sales people, travel, ads, CEO, rent, supplies • Going forward, 12 months
Cost of Goods Sold • Baby fish • Facilities: Rent & heating • Feed: Organic vegetarian • Staff: Monitor, move, clean, fillet, package fish • Delivery to customers • Byproducts: Waste and offal
Operating (S,G&A) Costs • Sales Force • List in organic seafood directories • Advertise with trade associations • Host events, tours, tastings • CEO, accounting, IT, office rent
Depreciation – from Equipment purchases • “Pod System” • Filleting machine • $60,000 total • Last 10 years • (120 months)
Cost Projections Do this for 12 months
Exercise – Make Lists • What drives sales? • Cost items for: • Making your product • Selling your product • Running your company • Equipment you will need
Assets Cash 9.9 Accounts Receivable 32.7 Property & Equipment 60.0 Less Depreciation (6.0) Other Assets 2.0 Total Assets $125.6 Liabilities Accounts Payable 26.9 Accrued Expenses 24.4 Total Liabilities 51.3 Shareholders’ Equity Common Stock 450.3 Retained Earnings (376) Total Liabilities & Shareholders’ Equity $125.6 Good Fish Balance Sheet as of 12/31/10
Balance Sheet Assets = Liabilities + Shareholders’ Equity
Balance Sheet Definitions Assets: > What the company owns Liabilities & Shareholders’ Equity > How the company pays for what it owns