INDONESIAN FOREST FIRES AND CHALLENGING TO REDUCE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION AS ONE OF THE MAIN FACTOR TO MINIMIZE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE BAMBANG HERO SAHARJO FACULTY OF FORESTRY BOGOR AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY INDONESIA
Fire is a significant source of gases and particulate to the atmosphere • environmentally important gases produce by fire includes carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen. • Fire also produces large amounts of small, solid particles or “particulate matter”, which absorb and scatter incoming solar radiation, and hence the impact of our planet as well as provoking a variety of human health problems
HOTSPOT SITUATION • Total hotspot detected in the year 2007 was 16,045 • >> Community : 70 % • Total hotspot detected during the year 2008 was 30,704 • Total hotspot detected during the year 2009 was 37,659 hotspots (until 16 November 2009): • << the forest area about 22.6 % (8,493 hotspot) • << non forest area 77.4 % (29,081 hotspot)
SOURCES OF FIRES • (Illegal) Shifting Cultivators • Land preparation using fire • * Forestry atctivities • * Oil palm • Logging(Illegal )
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT DUE TO FIRE • Atmospheric • Atmospheric CO2 content is presently rising at 0.4-0.48 % annually, faster than at any time in the past 500 million years • A doubling of CO2 levels in the atmosphere is expected to induce a rise in average global temperature of between 3-4°C. • Biodiversity • > Forest fires destroy large forest area that serve as habitat for biodiversity. • They directly eliminate plants and animals and also result in forest degradation that leads to a decrease in the survival rate of the species.
GREENHOUSE GAS AND GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE • Greenhouse Gas in Southeast Asia • In 2000, Southeast Asia contributed 12% of global GHG emissions, amounting to 5,187.2 MtCO2-eq, including emissions from LUCF (ADB 2009). • About 59% of Southeast Asia’s GHG emissions in 2000 came from Indonesia, mainly due to LUCF emissions (ADB 2009). • Covering almost 42% of the region’s land area and 40% of its population, Indonesia is the biggest contributor of GHG emissions and is therefore a key player in the struggle against the adverse impacts of climate change.
Much of the tropical forest is affected by deforestation due to land conversion and increasing resource use • Deforestation and biomass burning activities lead to major carbon (C) emissions to the atmosphere • Tropical biomass burned in the late 1970s has been estimated at 5.4 Pg/year (Pg =1015 g), including 1.8 Pg/year from deforestation and shifting cultivation • This burning has been estimated to contribute 2.4 Pg C / year to the atmosphere, or 30 % of the total from all sources
NEGATIVE IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING • Disasters • The green group recorded 840 ecological disasters from 2006 to 2007, leaving 7,300 people dead and 750,000 houses destroyed. • The country report presented by the Department of Public Works of Indonesia during the COP Conference of 13 Parties in Bali in November 2007, shows that all of disasters that hit Indonesia between 2003-2006, 75 to 80% were induced by climatic change • Seasonal Changing • > Farmers in East Nusa Tenggara have lost 25-40% of their income due to irregular rainfall, while fishermen in the Maluku islands have complained of poor catches in recent years as they lose their ability to predict sea climate and fish movement
BIODIVERSITY • Until 2007, disappearing species: • 140 species of birds, • 63 species of mammalians, • 21 species of reptilians disappeared • Until 2007, left Sumatran Rhinos about 300 while Java Rhinos about 60. • In the next 15 years if the efforts fail to protect those elephants hence 35 % of it will disappeared and if in the next 30 years again if the efforts fail hence those elephants disappeared. • The rate of disappearing Orang utan predicted about 1-1.5 % per annum in Sumatra while in Kalimantan about 1.5-2.0 %.
> Daily temperature > IPCC (2007) put Indonesia as the country which daily average daily temperature increase between 0.2° C – 1°C during 1970-2004 period • The increasing of sea water level • 1.0 mm – 9.37cm/year certain place (1984-2006) • > 24 small islands disappeared(2005-2007)
(CHALLENGE) TO THE EMISSION REDUCTION • >>> INDONESIA (BAPPENAS,2009) • emissions from oxidation of 220 Mt CO2/yr • fire emissions estimate of 470 Mt CO2/yr • loss of AGB of 210 Mt CO2/yr • How (?) • Fire prevention • Agroforestry and Land Use Change • Grassland management • Peatland Management and Restoration of Organic Soill • Restoration of Degraded Lands
CONCLUSION • Forest and land fires in Indonesia direct or indirectly well recognized as one of the main contributor to deforestation and land conversion which responsible for mostly of greenhouse gas produced which finally related with the global climate change. • The negative impact of global climate change directly or indirectly believed occurred in Indonesia as it can be seen through many significant sign. • To solve the problem, reduction of forest and land fire occurs and land conversion hopefully is one of the reasonable action and prevention efforts is the best solution through community involvement.