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What is DNA and How is it Used in Forensics? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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What is DNA and How is it Used in Forensics?. Mrs. L. Fox. DNA is a Unique Identifier. The only ones that MIGHT be the same are identical twins * Chances of another person having the same DNA is 1 in a billion. An example. 4 Main Types of DNA Testing. RFLP

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dna is a unique identifier
DNA is a Unique Identifier
  • The only ones that MIGHT be the same are identical twins *
  • Chances of another person having the same DNA is 1 in a billion.
4 main types of dna testing
4 Main Types of DNA Testing
  • RFLP
    • The original testing process – but it needs large amounts of a sample.
  • PCR
    • Doesn’t actually type the DNA – it makes copies
    • Can be used with degraded DNA
    • Care must be taken to avoid contamination
dna testing
DNA Testing
  • STR
    • Looks at shorter sections of DNA than RFLP
    • Often used to compare genetic evidence on the Y chromosome
    • Can be used with very small samples
  • mtDNA
    • Mitochondrial DNA
    • Used with hair and bones, which lack nucleated cells
    • Very old, degraded samples can use
how dna works
How DNA Works
  • http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/genetic/dna-evidence.htm
comparing dna
Comparing DNA
  • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/education/body/create-dna-fingerprint.html
codis
CODIS
  • Combined DNA Index System
  • Samples collected at state and local level
  • Profile is sent to national database
the future of dna in forensics
The Future of DNA in Forensics
  • Cost of processing is dropping
  • As more samples collected, matching is likelier
  • Still not foolproof – fraud is a possibility
  • Still time-consuming and expensive